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Kane I DD-235 - Geschichte

Kane I DD-235 - Geschichte

Kane I

(DD-235: dp. 1215 t. 1. 314'5" b.31'8", dr. 9'4"; s. 35 k.
epl. 101; A. 4 5", 1 3'; 2,30 essen., 12 21" tt.; el. Clemson)

Die erste Kane (DD-235) wurde am 3. Juli 1918 von der New York Shipbuilding Corp., Camden, N.J., aufgelegt. Gestartet am 12. August 1919, gesponsert von Miss Florence Kane, Cousine von Elisha Kent Kane; und in Auftrag gegeben 11. Juni 1920, Comdr. William Wall im Kommando.

Kane verließ Newport am 20. August 1920 für ihre Shakedown-Kreuzfahrt nach Gibralter. Brest, Kopenhagen. Danzig und der Golf von Riga. Sie befand sich am 1. Oktober 1920 außerhalb des Golfs in der Baltie-See und war angeblich weit von den Minenfeldern entfernt, die im Ersten Weltkrieg angelegt wurden, als eine Mine explodierte und ihre Backbordmotorwellen und Backbordpropellerstreben verbogen. Nach der Reparatur in Landskrone, Schweden und Überholung in Chatham, England, segelte sie am 21. Mai 1921 ins Mittelmeer.

Am 22. Juni 1921 rettete Kane ein italienisches Torpedoboot, das auf den Felsen vor Kap Spartivento trieb. Am 3. Juli erreichte sie Konstantinopel für Hilfseinsätze in türkischen Gewässern. Sie kehrte am 23. August nach Newport zurück. Sie segelte am 2. Oktober mit dem Zerstörergeschwader 14, um Flüchtlinge zu evakuieren und andere Hilfsarbeiten in Kleinasien durchzuführen. Sie kam am 22. Oktober in Konstantinopel an und wurde ständig verwendet, um Vorräte, medizinische Hilfe, Flüchtlinge und Hilfskräfte zwischen Häfen des Schwarzen Meeres und des östlichen Mittelmeers zu besorgen. Sie verließ Konstantinopel am 18. Mai 1SI23 und verbrachte die nächsten 5 Jahre bei der Aufklärungsflotte, die entlang der Ostküste und in der Karibik operierte. Sie verließ New York am 13. Februar 1925 für eine Flottenschulfahrt nach San Diego, segelte von dort nach Pearl Harbor und kehrte am 17. Juli zurück. Im Frühjahr 1927 patrouillierte der Zerstörer vor dem von Banditen geplagten Nicaragua und den Honduras. Sie wurde am 31. Dezember 1930 im Philadelphia Navy Yard außer Dienst gestellt.

Kane wurde am 1. April 1932 wieder in Dienst gestellt und verließ Philadelphia am 29. Juni nach San Diego, ihrer Basis für die nächsten 4 Jahre. Sie brach am 27. April 1936 von San Diego zu 9eet-Übungen in der Karibik auf, bevor sie die New York Navy Yard betrat, um sich auf den Sonderdienst vorzubereiten.

Kane verließ New York am 17. August 1936 nach Spanien, um amerikanische Staatsbürger zu evakuieren, deren Leben durch den spanischen Bürgerkrieg gefährdet war. Am 30. August musste sie auf dem Weg nach Bilbao dreimal das Feuer eröffnen, um einen dreimotorigen Eindecker zu vertreiben, der Bomben innerhalb von 100 Metern um den Zerstörer abwarf. Ein starker Protest gegen beide Fraktionen des spanischen Bürgerkriegs wurde daraufhin erhoben und ähnlichen Vorfällen zuvorgekommen. Sie besuchte Balbao und Gijon, um Flüchtlinge einzuschiffen, die nach St. Jean de Luz Franee gebracht wurden.

Kreuzer Kaleigh (CW7) erreichte Gibralter am 27. September 1936 als Flaggschiff der Squadron Forty-T unter dem Kommando von Konteradmiral Arthur P. Eairfield. Dieses spezielle Geschwader, das ursprünglich aus Raleigh, den Zerstörern Kane und lIatfleld und CGC Ca`/uga bestand, rettete Hunderte von Amerikanern und anderen Staatsangehörigen vor den Gefahren des Krieges in Spanien. Kane und TIatpeld wurden am 9. November 1937 von den Zerstörern Clayton und St. anlely abgelöst und segelten nach Hause. Kane trat am 22. November in den Charleston Navy Yard ein und wurde am 28. April 1938 außer Dienst gestellt.

Kane wurde am 23. September 1939 wieder in Dienst gestellt, um in der Neutralitätspatrouille im Nordatlantik zu dienen. Am 7. August nahm sie an beiden Küsten Panamas Küstenverteidigungspatrouille auf. Sie dampfte dann nach San Diego und kam am 4. November 1940 an, um vor der Küste Kaliforniens zu patrouillieren. Sie wurde vom 4. Januar bis 3. März 1941 in der Puget Sound Naval Shipyard überholt. Sie war in Seattle für Patrouillen nach Norden nach Alaska und entlang der Westküste stationiert. Nachdem die Japaner Pearl Harbor angegriffen hatten, verließ sie Seattle nach Rodiak, Alaska, und eskortierte Truppentransporte zurück nach Seattle am 23. Dezember. Nach einer ähnlichen Begleitreise kam sie am 19. April 1942 in Seward an, um zwischen den Inseln Konvois und U-Boot-Patrouillen zwischen alaskischen Häfen zu patrouillieren.

Am 11. Juni rettete Kane 11 Überlebende der torpedierten SS Arcata. Am Morgen des 3. August 1942 fand sie ihre Flugabwehrgeschütze gegen zwei Angriffe japanischer 4-motoriger Höhenbomber wenig brauchbar. Geschicktes Manövrieren und Schnelligkeit retteten den beherzten Zerstörer vor Bomben, die in seinem Kielwasser fielen. Sie setzte ihren Patrouillen- und Eskortendienst in alaskischen und aleutenischen Sektoren bis Februar 1942 fort und wurde dann von Todd's Dry Docks, Seattle Washington, und reelassiBed APD-18 zu einem Hochgeschwindigkeitstransporter umgebaut. Der Umbau wurde am 3. April 1943 abgeschlossen, als sie zum amphibischen Training mit der 7. Infanterie der Armee in Monterey Bay, Kalifornien, aufbrach.

Kane verließ San Franeiseo am 24. April und traf am 30. April in Cold Bay ein, um die Rückeroberung von Attu auf den Aleuten vorzubereiten. Am Morgen des 11. Mai landeten die U-Boote Narwhal und Nautilus 100 Army Seouts nordwestlich von Holtz Bay. Einige Stunden später wurde Kane vom Radar des Schlachtschiffs Penn'2~1vania durch blendenden Nebel gecoacht, um 400 Aufklärungstruppen zu landen, die sich dann den Spähern anschlossen.

Während der erbitterten Bodenkämpfe auf Attu diente Kane als Evakuierungskrankenhaustransport und pendelte medizinische Versorgung zwischen Holtz und Massacre Bay. Vor der Einfahrt zu Dutch Harbor am 17. Juli empfing sie 12 Überlebende der russischen Seiner Nr. S. Nach amphibischen Exereisen vor der Insel Amehitha landete sie am 14. August auf Riska und später auf den Little Riska Islands. Aber die Japaner hatten im Schutz des Nebels evaeuiert und einige Mischlingshunde als einzige Bewohner zurückgelassen. Dies markierte das Ende des letzten japanischen Einflusses auf die Aleuten. Rane blieb bis zum 20.

Kane kam am 18. Januar 1944 in Pearl Harbor an, um sich der 5. Amphibischen Foree anzuschließen, um die Marshalls zu fangen. Ihre Marineeskorte sicherte in der Nacht vom 30. auf den 31. Januar 1944 die Kanalinseln am Eingang der MaJuro-Lagune und eroberte später die Inseln auf der Ostseite der Rwajelein-Lagune. Sie segelte am 25. Februar, um amphibische Landungsschiffe für die Invasion von Milne Bay, New lluinea, zu durchsuchen, und lief dann in Seeadler Harbor, Manus, ein, als das 7. Kavallerie-Regiment die verbleibende Stärke der Admiralität übernahm. Der Hochgeschwindigkeitstransport landete Männer der 163. Infanterie in Aitape am 22. April 1944 und bombardierte feindliche Stellungen, bevor er sich auf die Insel Ali zurückzog. Nachdem sie einen Konvoi zu den Salomonen eskortiert hatte, kehrte sie am 23. Mai 1944 nach Pearl Harbor zurück.

Nach dem Training in Pearl Harbor und den Vorbereitungen in Eniwetok landete Kane am 15. Juni 1944 Marines für die Invasion von Saipan. Nachdem die schnellen Träger der 5. Team 4 im Einsatz vor Saipan. Am 23. Juni wich sie einer Fliegerbombe aus, die sie mit Spitzhacken beschoss und drei Männer verwundete. Sie füllte sich in Entwetok auf und erreichte dann am Nachmittag des 17. Juli die Agat-Bucht auf Guam. Die Japaner hatten drei Reihen Palmenholzkrippen gepflanzt, die mit Korallenfelsen gefüllt waren und durch Drahtseile miteinander verbunden waren. Ihre "nackten Krieger" des IJnderwater Demolition Team 4, unterstützt von anderen Teams, sprengten Hunderte dieser Hindernisse und machten den Weg für die Marinesoldaten frei, die am 21. Juli 1944 landeten. Am 24. Juli arbeiteten die Froschmänner bis in die Nacht hinein Feuer in Agat Bay verfehlte Kane nur knapp. Sie kehrte am 10. August 1944 nach Pearl Harbor zurück, erreichte jedoch am 18. Oktober den Golf von Leyte und trug 100 Tonnen Sprengstoff, um den Weg für die Landungen der Leyte-Invasion 2 Tage später freizumachen. Sie brachte ihre Abrissteams zu den Admiralitätsinseln, nahm dann Kurs auf die Heimat und eine Überholung und erreichte am 4. Dezember San Pedro, Kalifornien.

Kane verließ San Diego am 20. April 1945, um das Underwater Demolition Team 24 in hawaiianischen Gewässern bis zum 4. Mai auszubilden, und kam dann am 12. Juni vor Rerama Retto an. Nachdem sie das Krankenhaus Solace (AH-5) aus dem Kampfgebiet herausgeführt hatte, patrouillierte sie am südwestlichen Ankerplatz von Ilinawa und schlug am 21. Juni zwei Selbstmordflugzeuge ab. Eine Woche später segelte sie mit einem Konvoi nach Leyte. Sie wurde am 4. Juli eine Einheit der Philippine Sea Frontier und patrouillierte die nach Osten führenden Schifffahrtswege, um U-Boote bis zum Ende der Feindseligkeiten zu schützen.

Kane verließ San Pedro Bay, Leyte, am 13. September, begleitete Besatzungstruppen nach Rorea und kam am 17. September in Jinsen an. Danach wurde sie ein inoffizielles Empfangsschiff und wickelte die Kommunikation für den Jinsen-Vertreter der 7. Amphibienstreitmacht ab. Abgelöst am 12. November 1945 machte sie sich auf den Heimweg nach San Diego am 13. Dezember 1945. Nachdem sie 149 Marineveteranen an Land geschickt hatte, durchquerte sie den Panamakanal zum Philadelphia Navy Yard, wo sie am 24. Januar 1946 außer Dienst gestellt wurde. Sie wurde am 21. Juni 1946 zur Verschrottung nach Northern verkauft Metals Co., Philadelphia.

Kane erhielt sieben Kampfsterne für seinen Dienst im Zweiten Weltkrieg.


Kane I DD-235 - Geschichte

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Kain, in der Bibel (hebräische Bibel oder Altes Testament), erstgeborener Sohn von Adam und Eva, der seinen Bruder Abel ermordete (1. Mose 4,1-16). Kain, ein Bauer, wurde wütend, als der Herr die Gabe seines Bruders, eines Hirten, seinem eigenen vorzog. Er ermordete Abel und wurde vom Herrn aus dem besiedelten Land verbannt. Kain befürchtete, dass er in seinem Exil von jedem getötet werden könnte, und so gab ihm der Herr ein Zeichen zu seinem Schutz und versprach, dass er siebenfach gerächt werden würde, wenn er getötet würde.

Die biblische Geschichte könnte erklären, warum ein bestimmter Stamm namens Kain ein spezielles Tattoo-Zeichen hatte und warum dieser Stamm jedes ermordete Mitglied streng rächt. Die Geschichte kann auch erklären, warum dieser Stamm eher ein Nomadenleben als ein sesshaftes Leben führte. Einige biblische Kritiker glauben, dass der Stamm Kain die Keniten waren.

Laut Irenäus und anderen frühchristlichen Schriftstellern existierte im 2. Jahrhundert n. Chr. eine gnostische Sekte namens Kainiten.

Die Herausgeber der Encyclopaedia Britannica Dieser Artikel wurde zuletzt von Kara Rogers, Senior Editor, überarbeitet und aktualisiert.


Servicehistorie [ bearbeiten | Quelle bearbeiten]

Kane verließ Newport, Rhode Island am 20. August 1920 für ihre Shakedown-Kreuzfahrt nach Gibraltar, Brest, Kopenhagen, Danzig und den Golf von Riga. Sie war am 1. Oktober 1920 kurz vor dem Golf in der Ostsee und angeblich weit von den im Ersten Weltkrieg gelegten Minenfeldern entfernt, als eine Mine explodierte und ihre Backbordmotorwellen und Backbordpropellerstreben verbogen. Nach Reparatur in Landskrona, Schweden und Überholung in Chatham, England, segelte sie am 21. Mai 1921 ins Mittelmeer.

Am 22. Juni 1921, Kane rettete ein italienisches Torpedoboot, das auf den Felsen vor Kap Spartivento trieb. Am 3. Juli erreichte sie Konstantinopel für Hilfseinsätze in türkischen Gewässern. Sie kehrte am 23. August nach Newport zurück. Sie segelte am 2. Oktober mit dem Zerstörergeschwader 14, um Flüchtlinge zu evakuieren und andere Hilfsarbeiten in Kleinasien durchzuführen. Sie kam am 22. Oktober in Konstantinopel an und wurde ständig verwendet, um Vorräte, medizinische Hilfe, Flüchtlinge und Hilfskräfte zwischen Häfen des Schwarzen Meeres und des östlichen Mittelmeers zu transportieren. Sie verließ Konstantinopel am 18. Mai 1923 und verbrachte die nächsten 5 Jahre bei der Aufklärungsflotte, die entlang der Ostküste und in der Karibik operierte. Sie verließ New York am 13. Februar 1925 für eine Flottentrainingskreuzfahrt nach San Diego, Kalifornien, und segelte von dort nach Pearl Harbor und kehrte am 17. Juli zurück. Im Frühjahr 1927 patrouillierte der Zerstörer vor dem von Banditen geplagten Nicaragua und den Honduras. Sie wurde am 31. Dezember 1930 im Philadelphia Navy Yard außer Dienst gestellt.

Kane am 1. April 1932 wieder in Dienst gestellt und verließ Philadelphia am 29. Juni nach San Diego, ihrer Basis für die nächsten 4 Jahre. Sie brach am 27. April 1936 von San Diego zu Flottenübungen in der Karibik auf, bevor sie in die New York Navy Yard eintrat, um sich auf den Sonderdienst vorzubereiten.

Kane verließ New York am 17. August 1936 nach Spanien, um amerikanische Bürger zu evakuieren, deren Leben durch den Bürgerkrieg in Spanien gefährdet war. Am 30. August musste sie auf dem Weg nach Bilbao dreimal das Feuer eröffnen, um ein dreimotoriges Eindecker abzuwehren, das Bomben im Umkreis von 100 Metern um den Zerstörer abwarf. Es wurde ein starker Protest gegen beide Fraktionen des spanischen Bürgerkriegs erhoben, und dies verhinderte ähnliche Vorfälle. Sie besuchte Bilbao und Gijon und schiffte Flüchtlinge ein, die nach St. Jean de Luz, Frankreich, gebracht wurden.

Raleigh kam am 27. September 1936 in Gibraltar als Flaggschiff der Squadron Forty-T unter dem Kommando von Konteradmiral Arthur P. Fairfield an. Dieses spezielle Geschwader, zunächst bestehend aus Raleigh, Kane und Hatfield, Cayuga, rettete Hunderte von Amerikanern und anderen Staatsangehörigen vor den Gefahren des Krieges in Spanien. Kane und Hatfield wurden erleichtert durch Claxton und Manley 9. November 1937 und segelte nach Hause. Kane trat am 22. November in den Charleston Navy Yard ein und wurde am 28. April 1938 außer Dienst gestellt.

Zweiter Weltkrieg [ Bearbeiten | Quelle bearbeiten]

Kane am 23. September 1939 wieder in Dienst gestellt, um in der Neutralitätspatrouille im Nordatlantik zu dienen. Am 7. August nahm sie an beiden Küsten Panamas Küstenverteidigungspatrouille auf. Sie dampfte dann nach San Diego und kam am 4. November 1940 an, um vor der kalifornischen Küste zu patrouillieren. Sie wurde vom 4. Januar bis 3. März 1941 in der Puget Sound Naval Shipyard überholt und war in Seattle für Patrouillen nach Norden nach Alaska und entlang der Westküste stationiert. Nachdem die Japaner Pearl Harbor angegriffen hatten, verließ sie Seattle, Washington, um nach Kodiak, Alaska, zu fahren und eskortierte Truppentransporte zurück nach Seattle am 23. Dezember. Nach einer ähnlichen Begleitreise kam sie am 19. April 1942 in Seward an, um zwischen den Inseln Konvois und U-Boot-Patrouillen zwischen alaskischen Häfen zu patrouillieren.

Am 11. Juni, Kane rettete 11 Überlebende der torpedierten SS Arcata. Am Morgen des 3. August 1942 fand sie ihre Flugabwehrgeschütze wenig brauchbar gegen zwei Angriffe japanischer Höhenbomber. Angriffe aus großer Höhe gegen die Schifffahrt waren selten wirksame Ausweichtaktiken, und die Geschwindigkeit rettete den Zerstörer vor Bomben, die in seinem Kielwasser fielen. Sie setzte ihren Patrouillen- und Eskortendienst in den Sektoren Alaskas und Aleuten bis Februar 1942 fort, wurde dann von Todd's Dry Docks, Seattle, Washington, zu einem Hochgeschwindigkeitstransporter umgebaut und neu klassifiziert APD-18. Der Umbau wurde am 3. April 1943 abgeschlossen, als sie zur amphibischen Ausbildung mit der 7. Infanterie der Armee in Monterey Bay, Kalifornien, aufbrach.

Kane verließ San Francisco am 24. April und kam am 30. April in Cold Bay an, um die Rückeroberung von Attu auf den Aleuten vorzubereiten. Der Morgen des 11. Mai, Narwal und Nautilus landete 100 Army Scouts nordwestlich von Holtz Bay. Einige Stunden später, Kane wurde durch sehr dichten Nebel gecoacht von Pennsylvania's Radar, um 400 Aufklärungstruppen zu landen, die sich dann den Spähern anschlossen.

Während der Bodenkämpfe auf Attu, Kane diente als Evakuierungskrankenhaustransport und pendelte medizinische Versorgung zwischen Holtz und Massacre Bay. Vor der Einfahrt zum Dutch Harbor am 17. Juli empfing sie 12 Überlebende der russischen Seiner Nr. 2. Nach amphibischen Übungen vor der Insel Amchitka landete sie am 14. August auf Kiska und später auf der Insel Little Kiska. Aber die Japaner hatten im Schutz des Nebels evakuiert und einige Mischlingshunde als einzige Bewohner zurückgelassen. Dies markierte das Ende des letzten japanischen Einflusses auf die Aleuten. Kane blieb bis zum 20. November 1943 zwischen alaskischen und aleutenischen Häfen im Dienst und dampfte dann bis zum 7.

Kane kam am 18. Januar 1944 in Pearl Harbor an, um sich der 5th Amphibious Force für die Eroberung der Marshallinseln anzuschließen. Ihre Marine-Eskorte sicherte in der Nacht vom 30. auf den 31. Januar 1944 die Kanalinseln am Eingang der Majuro-Lagune und eroberte später die Inseln auf der Ostseite der Kwajalein-Lagune. Sie segelte am 25. Februar, um amphibische Landungsschiffe für die Invasion von Milne Bay, Neuguinea, zu durchsuchen, und lief dann in Seeadler Harbour, Manus, ein, als das 7. Der Hochgeschwindigkeitstransport landete Männer der 163. Infanterie in Aitape am 22. April 1944 und bombardierte feindliche Stellungen, bevor er sich zurückzog, um Ali Island zu beschießen. Nachdem sie einen Konvoi zu den Salomonen eskortiert hatte, kehrte sie am 23. Mai 1944 nach Pearl Harbor zurück.

Nach dem Training aus Pearl Harbor und den Vorbereitungen in Eniwetok, Kane landeten Marines für die Invasion von Saipan am 15. Juni 1944. Nachdem die schnellen Träger der 5. Flotte Japans trägergestützte Luftwaffe in der Schlacht in der philippinischen See zerstört hatten, unterstützte der Transport das Underwater Demolition Team 4 bei Operationen vor Saipan. Am 23. Juni wich sie einer Fliegerbombe aus, die sie mit Granatsplittern beschoss und drei Männer verwundete. Sie füllte sich in Eniwetok auf und erreichte dann am Nachmittag des 17. Juli die Bucht von Agat auf Guam. Die Japaner hatten drei Reihen von Palmenholzkrippen gepflanzt, die mit Korallenfelsen gefüllt waren und als Schiffsabwehr durch Drahtseile miteinander verbunden waren. Ihre "nackten Krieger" des Underwater Demolition Team 4 sprengten mit Unterstützung anderer Teams Hunderte dieser Hindernisse und machten den Weg für die Marinesoldaten frei, die am 21. Juli 1944 landeten. Am 24. Juli arbeiteten die Kampfschwimmer bis in die Nacht hinein Feuer in der Bucht von Agat knapp verfehlt Kane. Sie kehrte am 10. August 1944 nach Pearl Harbor zurück, erreichte jedoch am 18. Oktober den Golf von Leyte und trug 100 Tonnen Sprengstoff, um den Weg für die Landungen der Leyte-Invasion 2 Tage später freizumachen. Sie brachte ihre Abbruchteams zu den Admiralitätsinseln, nahm dann Kurs auf die Heimat und eine Überholung und erreichte am 4. Dezember San Pedro, Kalifornien.

Kane verließ San Diego am 20. April 1945, um bis zum 4. Mai das Underwater Demolition Team 24 in hawaiianischen Gewässern auszubilden, und kam dann am 12. Juni vor Kerama Retto an. Nach der Begleitung Trost aus der Kampfzone patrouillierte sie den südwestlichen Ankerplatz von Ilinawa und kämpfte gegen zwei Kamikazes 21. Juni. Eine Woche später segelte sie mit einem Konvoi nach Leyte. Sie wurde am 4. Juli eine Einheit der Philippine Sea Frontier und patrouillierte bis zum Ende der Feindseligkeiten auf den nach Osten führenden Schifffahrtswegen, um U-Boote zu schützen.

Kane Abfahrt von San Pedro Bay, Leyte, 13. September, Besatzungstruppen nach Korea, Ankunft in Jinsen am 17. September. Danach wurde sie ein inoffizielles Empfangsschiff und kümmerte sich um die Kommunikation für den Jinsen-Vertreter der 7. Amphibienstreitmacht. Abgelöst am 12. November 1945 machte sie sich auf den Weg nach Hause und kam am 13. Dezember 1945 in San Diego an.

Nachdem sie 149 Marineveteranen an Land geschickt hatte, durchquerte sie den Panamakanal für die Philadelphia Navy Yard, wo sie am 24. Januar 1946 außer Dienst gestellt wurde. Sie wurde am 21. Juni 1946 zur Verschrottung an die Northern Metals Company, Philadelphia, verkauft.


Mục lục

Kane được đặt lườn vào ngày 3 tháng 7 năm 1918 tại xưởng tàu của hãng New York Shipbuilding Corporation. Nó được hạ thủy vào ngày 12 tháng 8 năm 1919, được đỡ đầu bởi cô Florence Kane, em họ Elisha Kent Kane và được đưa ra hoạt động vào ngày 11. Wilhelm Halle.

Giữa hai cuộc thế chiến Sửa đổi

Kane khởi hành từ Newport, Rhode Island vào ngày 20 tháng 8 năm 1920 cho chuyến đi chạy thử máy in Gibraltar, Brest, Kopenhagen, Danzig và vịnh Riga. Nó đang ở bên ngoài vịnh thuộc biển Baltic vào ngày 1 tháng 10 năm 1920, tại một khu vực được cho là đã được quét sạch mìn rải trong u vịt bên mạn trái. Sau khi được sửa chữa tại Landskrona, Thụy Điển, và đại tu tại xưởng tàu Chatham, Anh Quốc, nó lên đường vào ngày 21 tháng 5 năm 1921 để đi Địa Trung

Vào ngày 22 tháng 6 năm 1921, Kane cứu giúp một tàu phóng lôi ang trôi dạt cạnh các mỏm đá ngoài khơi mũi Spartivento. Nó đi n Konstantinopel vào ngày 3 tháng 7 cho các hoạt động cứu trợ tại vùng biển Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ, Kai trở về Newport vào ngày 23 tháng 8, rồi lạyà 2 v người tị nạn cùng các hoạt động cứu trợ khác tại vùng Tiểu Á. Nó đi n Konstantinopel vào ngày 22 tháng 10, và thường và thường xuyên được huy động vào nhiệm vụ chuyên chở tiếp liệu, thuốc Männer, người tị nạncĐ công côt Nó rời Konstantinopel vào ngày 18 tháng 5 năm 1923 để kay trở về Hoa Kỳ, trải qua năm năm tiếp theo cùng Hạm đội Tuần tiễu, hoạt động dọc theo vùngển v. Nó lên đường từ New York vào ngày 13 tháng 2 năm 1925 cho một chuyến đi huấn luyện hạm đội đến San Diego, Kalifornien, và từ đây lên đường đi Trân m 7. 7. 1927, Chiếc tàu khu trục tuần tra ngoài khơi vùng biển Nicaragua và Honduras đầy dẫy cướp bóc. Kane được cho xuất biên chế tại Xưởng hải quân Philadelphia vào ngày 31 tháng 12 năm 1930.

Kane được cho nhập biên chế trở lại vào ngày 1 tháng 4 năm 1932, và khởi hành từ vào ngày 29 tháng 6 để i San Diego, căn cứ nhà mới của nón trong b. Nó lên ng từ San Diego vào ngày 27 tháng 4 năm 1936 để tập trận hạm i tại vùng biển Caribe, trước khi đi vào Xưởng hải quân New York chuẩn bị choệ một. Nó rời New York vào ngày 17 tháng 8 năm 1936 để i Tây Ban Nha, làm nhiệm vụ triệt thoái công dân Hoa Kỳ mà tính mạng đang bị cuộc nội chiếnướtạ Vào ngày 30 tháng 8, trên đường đi Bilbao, nó phải nổ gesungen ba lần để đánh đuổi một máy bay ba động cơ vốn đã ném những quả bom cách con ). Sự phản đối mạnh mẽ gửi đến cả hai phe xung đột đã ngăn ngừa được những sự cố tương tự. Nó ghé qua Bilbao và Gijon, nhận lên tàu những người tị nạn để chuyển in St. Jean de Luz, Pháp.

Tàu tuần dương hạng nhẹ Raleigh đi n Gibraltar vào ngày 27 tháng 9 năm 1936 trong vai trò soái hạm của Hải i 40T dưới quyền Chuẩn đô c Arthur P. Fairfield. n vị đặc biệt này, bao gồm Raleigh, Kane, Hatfield và USCGC Cayuga, đã cứu được hàng trăm công dân Hoa Kỳ cùng những người thuộc các quốc tịch khác khỏi nguy hiểm của chiến tranh tại Tây Ban Nha. KaneHatfield c thay phiên bởi ClaxtonManley vào ngày 9 tháng 11 năm 1937, và chúng lên đường Kai trở về nhà. Kane đi vào Xưởng hải quân Charleston vào ngày 22 tháng 11, nơi nó lại được cho xuất biên chế vào ngày 28 tháng 4 năm 1938.

Thế Chiến II Sửa đổi

Kane lại được cho nhập biên chế trở lại vào ngày 23 tháng 9 năm 1939 để làm nhiệm vụ Tuần tra Trung lập tại vùng Bắc Đại Tây Dương. Vào ngày 7 tháng 8 năm 1940, nó đảm nhiệm việc tuần tra phòng thủ duyên hải cả hai phía bờ biển của Panama. Sau đó nó hướng đi SanDiego, n nơi vào ngày 4 tháng 11 năm 1940 để tuần tra ngoài khơi bờ biển Kalifornien. Nó được đại tu tại Xưởng hải quân Puget Sound từ ngày 4 tháng 1 năm 1940 đến ngày 3 tháng 3 năm 1941, rồi đặt căn cứ tại Seattle, Washington để tuần tra về a phía Bắc Sau khi Hải quân Đế quốc Nhật Bản tấn công Trân Châu Cảng, nó rời Seattle để đi Kodiak, Alaska, và hộ tống các tàu chở quân quay trở lạntó hsat 23 vào ngày đi đến Seaward vào ngày 19 tháng 4 năm 1942 để hộ tống vận tải đi lại giữa các đảo và tuần tra dọc theo các cảng Alaska.

Vào ngày 11 tháng 6, Kane cứu vớt 11 người sing sót từ chiếc SS Arcata bị đắm do trúng ngư lôi. Sáng ngày 3 tháng 8 năm 1942, dàn hỏa lực phòng không của nó tỏ ra vô dụng đối với hai đợt tấn công bởi máy bay ném bom tầm cao của Nhôt ca có hi.u qu., t.c. và chi.n thu.t l.n tránh giúp tàu khu tr.c né tránh dễ dàng các qu. bom. Nó tiếp tục nhiệm vụ tuần tra và hộ tống tại vùng biển Alaska và khu vực quần đảo Aleut cho đến tháng 2 năm 1943, khi nó được cải biến thn tht mộn ca ttạtạtạ nt ca ttạtạt nt ca và được xếp lại lớp với ký hiệu lườn mới APD-18. Việc cải biến hoàn tất vào ngày 3 tháng 4 năm 1943, khi nó khởi hành để huấn luyện đổ bộ cùng với Sư đoàn 7 Bộ binh Lục quân Hoa Kỳn tại, Kalifornien

Kane khởi hành từ San Francisco vào ngày 24 tháng 4, và đi n Cold Bay, Alaska vào ngày 30 tháng 4 nhằm chuẩn bị cho việc tái chiếm Attu. Sáng ngày 11 tháng 5, các tàu ngầm NarwalNautilus cho đổ bộ 100 lính do thám Lục quân lên phía Tây Bắc vịnh Holtz. Nhiều giờ sau, được dẫn đường qua làn sing mù dày đặc bởi Radar của thiết giáp hạm Pennsylvania, Kane cho bộ 400 lính trinh sát lên bờ sáp nhập cùng ich tue thám.

Trong quá trình trận chiến trên bờ Attu, Kane phục vụ như một tàu vận chuyển cứu thương và chuyển tiếp hàng y tế giữa Holtz và vịnh Massaker. Ngoài khơi lối ra vào cảng Niederländisch vào ngày 17 tháng 7, nó cứu vớt 12 người sing sót từ một tàu Nga. Sau các cuộc thực tập đổ bộ ngoài khơi quần đảo Amchitka, nó cho đổ bộ các đơn vị thuộc Lực lượng Đặc biệt 1 lục quân lên Kiska và ? đó dưới sự che chở của singen mù. Điều này kết thúc vị trí chiếm giữ cuối cùng của Nhật Bản tại quần đảo Aleut. Kane tiếp tục làm nhiệm vụ giữa các cảng Alaska và Aleut cho đến ngày 20 tháng 11 năm 1943, rồi di chuyển về phía Nam cho một đợt đại tu tại Xưởn nng Island quâ

Kane đi đến Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 18 tháng 1 năm 1944 để tham gia cùng Lực lượng Đổ bộ 5 cho việc chiếm đóng quần đảo Marshall. Lực lượng Thủy quân Lục chiến đã chiếm đóng các đảo nhỏ thuộc lối ra vào vũng biển Majuro trong đêm 30-31 tháng 1 năm 1944, và sau đó chiếm vềng . Nó lên đường vào ngày 25 tháng 2 để giúp bảo vệ các tàu đổ bộ trong việc chiếm đóng vịnh Milne, Neuguinea, rồi tiến vào cảng Seeadler, Manus, trong khi Trung đhể c thuộc quần o Admiralität. Chiếc tàu vận chuyển cao tốc đã cho đổ bộ binh lính của Trung đoàn Bộ binh 163 lên Aitape vào ngày 22. Sau khi hộ tống một đoàn tàu vận tải i n quần đảo Solomon, nó kay trở về Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 23 tháng 5 năm 1944.

Sau khi huấn luyện ngoài khơi Trân Châu Cảng cùng các hoạt động chuẩn bị tại Eniwetok, Kane cho đổ bộ binh lính Thủy quân Lục chiến trong việc chiếm đóng Saipan vào ngày 15 tháng 6 năm 1944. Sau khi các tàu sân bay nhanh thuộc Đệ Ngũ hnchità vận chuyển đã hỗ trợ cho Đội Phá hoại Dưới nước (UDT) 4 trong các hoạt động tại Saipan. Vào ngày 23 tháng 6, nó né tránh được một quả bom ném suýt trúng, nhưng mảnh bom cũng làm bị thương ba người. Nó được tiếp tế tại Eniwetok, rồi đi vào vịnh Agat, Guam vào xế trưa ngày 17 tháng 7. Quân Nhật đồn trú đã bố trí ba lớp phòng hđầ dếng cây đổ chống tàu đổ bộ. Các người nhái thuộc Đội UDT 4, được hỗ trợ bởi các đội khác, đã cho nổ tung hàng trăm chướng ngại vật như vậy, dọn đường cho cuộn tháng 7, trong lúc các người nhái đang hoạt động ban đêm, hỏa lực sing cối Nhật Bản đã suýt bắn trúng Kane. Nó kai trở lại Trân Châu Cảng vào ngày 10 tháng 8 năm 1944, rồi lại đi đến vịnh Leyte vào ngày 18 tháng 10, chở theo 100 tấn chất nổ nổ nổ sử vic n n vic n n vic n . Nó đưa các đội UDT của nó n quần đảo Admiralität, rồi lên đường Kai trở về nhà cho một đợt đại tu, về n San Pedro, Kalifornien vào ngày 4 tháng 12.

Kane khởi hành từ San Diego vào ngày 20 tháng 4 năm 1945 để huấn luyện cùng Đội UDT 24 tại vùng biển Hawaii cho đến ngày 4 tháng 5, rồi đi i nơnkngà h 12 Trost rời khỏi vùng chiến sự, nó tuần tra về phía Tây Nam khu vực đổ bộ Ilinawa, và đã đánh trả hai cu vận tải hướng in Leyte. Nó trở thành một đơn vị thuộc lực lượng Tiền phương biển Philippinisch vào ngày 4 tháng 7, và đã tuần tra trên các tuyến đường hàng hải về phía Đ ngố ngo vệ thế chế ngố kầ t

Kane khởi hành từ vịnh San Pedro, Leyte vào ngày 13 tháng 9, hộ tống đoàn tàu vận tải chuyển quân n Triều Tiên, đi đến Jinsen vào ngàt kh phương tiện liên lạc cho đại biểu của Lực lượng Đổ bộ 7. Được thay phiên vào ngày 12 tháng 11 năm 1945, nó lên đường kay trở về nhà, và và 13 về ngànn nhân sự hải quân rời tàu, nó băng qua kênh đào Panama để đi đến Xưởng hải quân Philadelphia, nơi nó c cho ngừng hoạt động vào ngà há ngày 21 tháng 6 năm 1946.

Kane c tặng thưởng bảy Ngôi sao Chiến trận tun thành tích phục vụ trong Chiến tranh Thế giới thứ hai.


Kane I DD-235 - Geschichte

SCHLACHTSCHIFF DIVISION FÜNF
Konteradmiral Hayne Ellis

NEW YORK (BB-34) (F)
Kapitän Robert M. Griffin
ARKANSAS (BB-33)
Kapitän William H. Pashley
TEXAS (BB-35)
Capt. Robert R. M. Emmet
WYOMING (AG-17)
Capt. Donald F. Patterson

CRUISER DIVISION SEVEN
Rear Admiral Andrew C. Pickens

WICHITA (CA-45) (F)
Capt. Thaddeus A. Thomson, Jr.
QUINCY (CA-39)
Capt. Paul H. Bastedo
SAN FRANCISCO (CA-38)
Capt. Charles M. Yates
TUSCALOOSA (CA-37)
Capt. Harry A. Badt
VINCENNES (CA-44)
Capt. John R. Beardall

RANGER (CV-4)
Captain Ralph F. Wood

Ranger Air Group
Lt. Cmdr. Oscar A. Weller

VB-4 - 18 VSB
Lt. Cmdr. John G. Crommelin, Jr.
VF-4 - 18 VF, 1 VSB, 2 VM
Lt. Cmdr. Albert K. Morehouse
VS-41 - 18 VSB
Lt. Cmdr. Thomas B. Williamson
VS-42 - 18 VSB
Lt. Cmdr. Ralph W. D. Woods
Miscellaneous Aircraft - 3 VSO, 2 VJ, 1 VSB

USS RANGER (CV-4) at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba in late 1939. Photo from the Naval History
and Heritage Command On-Line Library. Soweit ich weiß ist es gemeinfrei.

DESTROYER DIVISION TWENTY-ONE
Commander Samuel N. Moore

HOPKINS (DD-249) (F)
Lt. Cmdr. Omer A. Kneeland
BARRY (DD-248)
Lt. Cmdr. William M. Cole
GOFF (DD-247)
Lt. Cmdr. Noble W. Abrahams
REUBEN JAMES (DD-245)
Lt. Cmdr. Earl V. Sherman

DESTROYER DIVISION TWENTY-TWO
No commander listed

LEARY (DD-158)
Lt. Cmdr. Ethelbert Watts
SCHENCK (DD-159)
Lt. Samuel M. Bailey
FAIRFAX (DD-93)
Lt. Cmdr. Paul L. Mather
MANLEY (AG-28)
Lt. Cmdr. Edward C. Loughead

DESTROYER DIVISION TWENTY-SEVEN
No commander listed

BORIE (DD-215)
Lt. Cmdr. Robert M. Morris
BROOME (DD-210)
Lt. Cmdr. John Y. Dannenberg
SIMPSON (DD-221)
Lt. Cmdr. Hubert W. Chanler
TRUXTUN (DD-229)
Lt. Cmdr. Bruce B. Adell

DESTROYER DIVISION TWENTY-NINE
No commander listed

BADGER (DD-126)
Lt. Cmdr. William E. Hennigar
JACOB JONES (DD-130)**
Lt. Edward L. Woodyard
HERBERT (DD-160)
Lt. Cmdr. Robert P. Wadell
DICKERSON (DD-157)
Lt. Cmdr. Edwin E. Woods

DESTROYER DIVISION THIRTY
No commander listed

ROPER (DD-147)
Lt. Cmdr. Harry E. Hubbard
HAMILTON (DD-141)
Lt. Cmdr. Thomas C. Evans
BABBITT (DD-128)
Lt. Cmdr. Harold R. Parker
CLAXTON (DD-140)
Lt. Cmdr. William C. Cross

DESTROYER DIVISION SIXTY
Commander Thomas G. Peyton

ELLIS (DD-154) (F)
Cmdr. Thomas G. Peyton
DUPONT (DD-152)
Lt. William L. Messmer
BERNADOU (DD-153)
Lt. George A. Leahey, Jr.
COLE (DD-155)
Lt. Cmdr. Paul F. Dugan

DESTROYER DIVISION SIXTY-ONE
Commander John J. Mahoney

GREER (DD-145) (F)
Cmdr. John J. Mahoney
TARBELL (DD-142)
Lt. Cmdr. Edward W. Rawlins
YARNALL (DD-143)
Lt. Cmdr. John G. Winn
UPSHUR (DD-144)
Lt. Cmdr. Ralph E. Wilson

DESTROYER DIVISION EIGHTY-TWO
Commander Robert W. Fleming

HATFIELD (DD-231) (F)
Cmdr. Robert W. Fleming
FOX (DD-234)
Lt. Cmdr. Joseph A. Farrell, Jr.
BROOKS (DD-232)
Lt. William R. Lefavour
KANE (DD-235)
Lt. Cmdr. George D. Martin

DESTROYER DIVISION SIXTY-SIX
Commander Fred D. Kirtland

BRECKINRIDGE (DD-148) (F)
Cmdr. Fred D. Kirtland
BARNEY (DD-149)
Lt. Cmdr. John H. Long
BLAKELEY (DD-150)
Lt. Cmdr. Kenneth P. Hartman
BIDDLE (DD-151)
Lt. Cmdr. Martin R. Peterson


5"/51 (12.7 cm) mounted on USS Gilmer DD-233 in 1921. Note the lack of a gun shield. Photograph courtesy of NavSource. USS Gilmer DD-233 at Hampton Roads, Virginia, October 1922. Note that the bow gun now has a shield. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 53732 Three of the five destroyers equipped with 5"/51 (12.7 cm) guns circa 1930. From front to back: USS Kane (DD-235), USS Hatfield (DD-231) and USS Brooks (DD-232). Behind them is USS Lawrence (DD-250) with her 3"/23 AA gun clearly in view but with just the end of her stern 4"/50 (10.2 cm) gun showing. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 52227. USS Florida B-30. Loading drill on 5"/51 (12.7 cm) gun in 1915. Note the powder bag, projectile, breech screw and that one sailor is in bare feet. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 78047. 5"/51 (12.7 cm) guns on USS California BB-44 in action during Night Battle Practice in 1933. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 55030. A visitor to USS Arkansas B-33 in 1919 peers through the gunsight for a 5"/51 (12.7 cm) gun. Note the small practice gun. Detail from U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 46317. 5"/51 (12.7 cm) gun, possibly on USS Texas B-35 circa 1915. Note how the gun mounting is recessed into the deck, thus allowing for easier loading. Bain News Service Photograph. Library of Congress Photograph ID LC-DIG-ggbain-10839. Side view of 5"/51 (12.7 cm) gun on USS Black Hawk AD-9 circa1937-1939. U.S. Naval Historical Center Photograph # NH 101147. Congressional delegation inspecting 5"/51 (12.7 cm) Mark 9 gun aboard Submarine V-1 (later USS Barracuda SS-163) in December 1924. National Photo Company Collection. Library of Congress Photograph ID LC-DIG-npcc-12734. Performing a boring operation on a 5"/51 (12.7 cm) gun in 1917. The original caption for this picture calls this a 5"/50 (12.7 cm) gun, but no guns of that size were built in 1917, the date of the photograph. Harris & Ewing Photograph. Library of Congress Photograph ID LC-DIG-hec-10064. 5"/51 (12.7 cm) gun on USS Olympia (C-6) now a memorial in Philadelphia, PA. Olympia was rearmed with a uniform battery of these guns around 1916. Photograph copyrighted by Charley Seavey. 5"/51 (12.7 cm) mount as used on Battleships. Sketch from OP-1112. Image courtesy of HNSA.

"Naval Weapons of World War Two" and "British Naval Guns 1880-1945 No 14" article in "Warship Volume VIII" both by John Campbell
"US Battleships: An Illustrated Design History" and "US Naval Weapons" both by Norman Friedman
"The Last Big-Gun Naval Battle: The Battle of Surigao Strait" by Howard Sauer
"U.S. Warships of World War II" by Paul H. Silverstone
"Battleships of World War Two" by M.J. Whitley
---
"Range and Ballistic Tables 1935" by U.S. Department of Ordnance and Gunnery
"U.S. Explosive Ordnance: Ordnance Pamphlet 1664 - May 1947" by Department of the Navy
---
"Ordnance Pamphlet 127: United States Naval Guns, Their Marks and Modifications April 1942" at Gene Slover's US Navy Pages
"OP-1112 - Gun Mount and Turret Catalog" on the HNSA Website


তুরস্কের স্বাধীনতা যুদ্ধ

তুরস্কের স্বাধীনতা যুদ্ধ (Turkish: İstiklâl Harbi, literally "Independence War" or Kurtuluş Savaşı, literally "Liberation War" ১৯ মে ১৯১৯ – ২৪ জুলাই ১৯২৩) তুর্কি জাতীয়তাবাদী এবং মিত্রশক্তির পক্ষের শক্তিগুলোর মধ্যে সংঘটিত হয়। এসময় পশ্চিমে গ্রীকদের সাথে, পূর্বে আর্মেনিয়ার সাথে, দক্ষিণে ফরাসিদের সাথে এবং ব্রিটেন ও ইটালির সাথে কনস্টান্টিনোপলে লড়াই হয়। প্রথম বিশ্বযুদ্ধের পর উসমানীয় সাম্রাজ্যকে বিভক্ত করা হয়েছিল। [৪৩] [৪৪] [৪৫]

Turkish National Movement

গ্রিস

যুক্তরাজ্য

Armenia

80,000 (Dec. 1919) [১৬]
1922: 200,000 [১৭] -250,000 [১৮] [১৯]
10,150 [২০] (south) and 20,000 [২১] (east)
60,000 [২২] [২৩]
40,000 [২৪]
17,900 [২৪]
36,000 [২৫]
Revolts: 50,000+ [২৬] [২৭]

13,000 killed [২৮]
22,690 died of disease [২৯]
5,362 died of wounds or other non-combat causes [২৯]
35,000 wounded [২৮]
7,000-22,000 prisoners [৩০] [f]

19,362 killed
18,095 missing
48,880 wounded
4,878 died outside of combat
10,000 prisoners [৩১] [note ৩]

7,000
1,100+ killed [৩৯]
3,000+ prisoners [৪০]

  • ^[a] Kuva-yi Milliye came under command of the GNA after 4 September 1920.
  • ^[b] The Ottoman controlled Caliphate Army engaged the Turkish revolutionaries during the Battle of İzmit and the Ottoman government in Constantinople supported other revolts (e.g. Anzavur).
  • ^[c] For further information, see the Red Army invasion of Georgia.
  • ^[f] Greece took 22,071 military and civilian prisoners. Of these were 520 officers and 6,002 soldiers. During the prisoner exchange in 1923, 329 officers, 6,002 soldiers and 9,410 civilian prisoners arrived in Turkey. The remaining 6,330, mostly civilian prisoners, presumably died in Greek captivity. [৩০]

আনাতোলিয়ায় মোস্তফা কামাল আতাতুর্ক‌ ও তার সহযোগীদের মাধ্যমে গ্র্যান্ড ন্যাশনাল এসেম্বলি গঠন হওয়ার পর তুর্কি জাতীয় আন্দোলন উৎপত্তি লাভ করে। তুর্কি-আর্মেনীয়, ফরাসি-তুর্কি, গ্রীক-তুর্কি যুদ্ধ (এগুলোকে যথাক্রমে যুদ্ধের পূর্ব, দক্ষিণ ও পশ্চিম রণাঙ্গন বলে অবিহিত করা হয়) শেষ হওয়ার পর সেভ্রেস চুক্তি বাতিল করা হয়ে ১৯২৩ সালের উলাই মাসে লুসানের চুক্তি স্বাক্ষরিত হয়। মিত্রশক্তি আনাতোলিয়া ও পূর্ব থ্রেস ত্যাগ করে এবং গ্র্যান্ড ন্যাশনাল এসেম্বলি তুর্কি প্রজাতন্ত্র প্রতিষ্ঠার সিদ্ধান্ত নেয়। ১৯২৩ সালের ২৯ অক্টোবর এই প্রজাতন্ত্র ঘোষিত হয়।

তুর্কি জাতীয় আন্দোলন প্রতিষ্ঠা, উসমানীয় সাম্রাজ্যের বিভাগ ও উসমানীয় সালতানাতের বিলুপ্তির পর উসমানীয় যুগ ও সাম্রাজ্যের সমাপ্তি ঘটে এবং এরপর আতাতুর্কের সংস্কার সাধিত হয়। সাম্রাজ্যের স্থলে নতুন জাতিরাষ্ট্র হিসেবে তুরস্ক প্রতিষ্ঠিত হয়।


7. Christianity and the loss of traditional values

The decline of Rome dovetailed with the spread of Christianity, and some have argued that the rise of a new faith helped contribute to the empire’s fall. The Edict of Milan legalized Christianity in 313, and it later became the state religion in 380. These decrees ended centuries of persecution, but they may have also eroded the traditional Roman values system. Christianity displaced the polytheistic Roman religion, which viewed the emperor as having a divine status, and also shifted focus away from the glory of the state and onto a sole deity. Meanwhile, popes and other church leaders took an increased role in political affairs, further complicating governance. The 18th-century historian Edward Gibbon was the most famous proponent of this theory, but his take has since been widely criticized. While the spread of Christianity may have played a small role in curbing Roman civic virtue, most scholars now argue that its influence paled in comparison to military, economic and administrative factors.


Disappearance of ODU Grad leads to probe – Federal agents suspect spying by ex-Navy man.

And with that, a mystery begins to unfold.

Souther, a Navy veteran, had worked in naval intelligence, (FICEURLANT - Fleet Intelligence Center, Europe & Atlantic) had analyzed spy satellite data and was once asked to take on a "low-level" espionage assignment for the navy in the Soviet Union, said those who knew him.

Following Souther's disappearance, investigators for the Naval Investigative Service and the FBI questioned his former colleagues and professors at ODU, asking about his finances, his friends and his background. They wanted to know why he had studied Russian, and if he was loyal to his country.

One of Souther's former teachers at the university, recalled that Souther had a one-way ticket to Rome…which was used, but according to the friend that was to meet him, he Souther never showed up at the airport.


Kane I DD- 235 - History

SHUFFLE AND STAND IN THE DOOR ………. GEHEN!
By Captain (SEAL) N.H. Olson, USN, Retired
Updated: February 2013

Today, basic and advanced parachuting in the SEAL, SDV and SWCC Teams is routine and an accepted part of doing business. While the parachuting lineage of today’s Naval Special Warfare forces can be traced to the early 1950s, there was one unsung hero in World War II, who by virtue of training and operations was likely the first individual in the United States to ever conduct the full range of missions considered core to the SEAL Teams.

When the U.S. entered World War II, Jack Taylor, a 33-year old orthodontist practicing in California, joined the Navy as a line officer and initially served on a sub-chaser. Based on his vast pre-war experience as an open-ocean sailor, he was sequestered by the Office of Strategic Services (OSS) to serve in their maritime training section as an instructor in boat handling, navigation and seamanship. He then went on to qualify in the use of the Lambertsen Amphibious Respiratory Unit (LARU) and was assigned to the first Underwater Swimmer Group trained for operations in Northern Europe. However, prior to his deployment to England, his vast experience in small boat operations found another calling, and he was transferred as the first OSS Maritime Unit (MU) representative in the Middle East. Over a 15-month period, his achievements were considerable in the landing of agents and the delivery of ammunition and supplies to advance operations bases in the Nazi-occupied Greek Islands and mainland, and into Yugoslavia and Albania, including near capture on one occasion.

As the war in Europe was coming to a close, it was recognized that there were no known Partisan groups or resistance movements in Austria with whom to ally with. Thus, the Vienna area was chosen as the first priority to infiltrate an OSS team. LT Taylor was selected to lead three volunteer Austrian corporal POWs on the first American operation into Austria, coined the Dupont Mission. On 13 October 1944, the 4-man team was infiltrated by parachute from a British Liberator manned by a Polish crew. To minimize their exposure to searchlights and anti-aircraft batteries, the jump was conducted during the dark of the moon from 400 feet, without a ground reception committee or ground lights, and with absolutely no circling. Compared to normal Partisan drops, this plan was entirely abnormal, due to the extremely hazardous nature of this operation.

After evading the enemy for over 6-weeks, the team was captured an interned in a Vienna prison. Tortured and brutalized for over 4-months, LT Taylor was transferred on 1 April 1945 to Mauthausen, the most notorious of all Nazi concentration camps. He was scheduled to be executed on 28 April, but 3-days before, a friendly Czech working in the political department burned his file. Several days later, Mauthausen was liberated by the Americans and LT Taylor was set free. Following his recovery, he testified at the Nuremberg Trials, wearing his service dress blues, with silver jump wings over his left breast pocket.

As a member of the U.S. Navy, LT Jack Taylor unquestionably stands out in the history of Maritime Special Operations as our nation’s first Sea, Air, and Land Commando. While he did not have the benefit of today’s formal training, parachuting or otherwise, his operational exploits and personal daring serve as a role model for present day SEALs to emulate.

In the Spring of 1950, five years after the close of World War II and during the early period of the Korean Police Action, the Office of the Chief of Naval Operations requested the Commanders of Underwater Demolition Teams ATLANTIC and PACIFIC to each submit a list of UDT- qualified officers recommended for specialized training at Fort Benning, GA, which would require, among other things, qualification as parachutists.

In January 1951, LT (later CAPT) Bruce Dunning from UDT TWO was the first UDT operator selected to attend this specialized, tri-Service training. After graduation the following February, and while enroute to Washington, DC, LT Dunning briefed COMUDTLANT on the value of having Basic Airborne Training incorporated into the UDT program, both as a delivery means and to upgrade the quality of UDT Training. LT (later CAPT) Bill Thede from UDT ONE attended the next class, and he was followed by LTJG (later CAPT) Allen Jones, Jr. from UDT FOUR. In a number of cases, this training led to assignment with the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the follow-on organization to the OSS. Much like World War II, qualification as a parachutist was a prerequisite for such assignment.

It is not clear whether others from UDT attended this specialized training during the Korean War, but in 1954, the XO, UDT TWENTY-ONE, LT (Later CDR) Leo Huddleston (a WW II veteran of UDT THIRTEEN), was directed to review UDT’s mission statement. Surprisingly to him, it contained a clause that stated UDT should have the capability to be delivered to an objective area by parachute. This was in all likelihood the result of recommendations made by the early pioneers, who opened the doors that led to what is now an accepted core readiness capability in SEAL Training.

As a result of LT Huddleston’s discovery, he immediately recommended that a chosen few, him included, acquire parachute training in order to determine whether this was in fact a viable option. Thus, in the fall of 1955, after a year of persistent struggle with the Army for quotas, CDR Dave Saunders, COMUDUTWO (the WW II CO, UDT TWENTY-SIX), along with LT Larry Fay, UDT TWENTY TWO, attended Basic Airborne School, Ft. Benning, GA. Prior to their scheduled graduation, LT Huddleston and LTJG Ralph Leonard, both of UDT TWENTY-ONE, commenced training in the next class.

Unfortunately, CDR Saunders did not graduate due to a near fatal injury sustained on the 250 Ft Tower. As he was being hoisted up, the locking mechanism that secured the apex of the parachute assembly prematurely released at about 100 feet, driving him to the ground and severely injuring one of his ankles. He was subsequently retired on full disability. This was the first tower malfunction in the history of Airborne Training, which is phenomenal when you consider that nearly a quarter of a million trainees had passed through the “Cradle of American Airborne” before him. As a result, those of us that followed were hooked up to a safety line that attached to the solid outer ring housing each of the tower’s canopies.

Following this initial assessment, quotas for fifteen Frogmen were obtained in the spring of 1956. Their purpose was to complete training and then return to Little Creek to develop tactical water entry techniques. A call went out to both UDT TWENTY-ONE and UDT TWENTY-TWO for volunteers, and virtually everyone signed up. LTJG Leonard was put in charge of paring this group down to three officers and twelve enlisted men.

This period of pre screening, referred to by many as “Gladiator” training, included untold numbers of pull-ups, practicing the “Parachute Shuffle,” and worse yet, wearing starched greens, polishing brass, shaving one’s head and learning how to march. After several weeks, the selection was made and LTJG Norm Olson was designated as the Detachment Officer in Charge. Rounding out the Detachment were LTJG Jack Connelly, ENS Tony Steimle, BM1 Joe DiMartino, BM1 Fred “Robby” Robbins, QM1 Charles “Moose” Boitnott, GM1 Ben Sulinski, MN1 Jim McGee, CD1 Paul Grimes, GM2 Tom McAllister, MM2 “Charlie” Bond, EM2 Frank Moncrief, BM3 Bob Salerno, SW3 Bob Ballard, and IC3 Dick Prahm. Although there was much complaining about this pre selection phase, it paid off, making the actual training a piece of cake.

In those days, the UDTs wore boondockers and WW II vintage Seabee greens and ball caps, and in most cases these uniforms had been turned in by departing Frogmen and reissued to newly arrived Trainees. Last names were stenciled over one of the pockets and new arrivals usually had several iterations of names that had been blackened out before reissue. The bottom line was that this ensemble, referred to as a uniform, was motley looking at best.

However, in preparation for jump school, and to the dismay of others in the Teams, the dirty dozen plus three were issued several sets of Army style greens purchased at Ft. Story. Additionally, at their own expense, they ordered Corcoran Jump Boots, without which they could not attend the course. In those days, the boots only came in brown, the color of the Army Airborne thus, prior to departure, they were dyed black.

Basic Airborne Training hasn’t changed much over the years, except for the jump platform and parachute. In those days, the aircraft was the C 119 “Flying Boxcar” and the parachute assembly was the T 10 with an unmodified 35 Ft Canopy. After two weeks of ground training and a third week consisting of five jumps, Airborne Class 12 graduated in June 1956. The parade review was marked with the UDT officers wearing khakis and framed caps, and the enlisted men wearing whites, neckerchiefs and white hats.

Boots were also bloused. It wasn’t clear why the Detachment was disbursed throughout the 250 man formation, but rumor had it that the Army didn’t want this small group to stand out from the rest, particularly since the two class honormen were GM1 Ben Sulinski and CD1 Paul Grimes. In truth, they probably feared that UDT’s marching skills would cause great hilarity and embarrassment, and that it would be far better to spread the Detachment out amongst the masses.

Following graduation, the Detachment remained for an additional week of Jumpmaster Training, which included three more jumps. During this time, mock exits were made from the 34 Ft Tower wearing a dry suit, with fins and facemask either worn or secured to the bellyband. Additionally, exits were made with the Draeger Lar III Closed Circuit SCUBA under the harness. This preliminary assessment was done in anticipation of making water jumps once the Detachment returned to Little Creek. Regrettably, the lack of funding to procure parachute equipment and priority to schedule aircraft resulted in a four year delay before any water jumps were actually conducted.

During the intervening years, additional quotas were sought so as to have a cadre of qualified personnel on board at all times. However, it wasn’t until 1958 that eighteen more quotas were obtained. Shortly thereafter, a new group of volunteers commenced “Gladiator” pre screening under the watchful eye of now LT Olson. This Detachment, headed by LTJG Fred Cook, graduated in December. Shortly thereafter, he was tasked to develop techniques and evaluate procedures for water entry by parachute. Without benefit of aircraft or parachutes, this initial evaluation was limited to pool testing wearing salvaged parachute harnesses and using the “Dilbert Dunker” at the Norfolk Naval Air Station. Although this was far from an ideal situation, the tests did conclude that the wearing of Closed Circuit SCUBA and ancillary equipment under the existing parachute assembly was not the way to go, and that some form of general purpose (GP) bag would be needed.

In order to gain additional parachuting experience, COMUDUTWO in July 1959 arranged for this core of UDT jumpers to attend a week long Airborne Orientation Course offered by the 77th Special Forces Group, Fort Bragg, NC. In return, the Green Berets would receive Closed Circuit SCUBA training at Little Creek. This was the first exchange between Special Forces and the East Coast UDTs, and it ultimately led to a very close working relationship once SEAL Team TWO was established in 1962.
The additional jump training provided by the 77th SFG included about a dozen jumps from a variety of fixed and rotary wing aircraft. Additionally, rigging and aerial delivery techniques unique to small units were demonstrated, which proved invaluable once the Teams conducted actual jumps.

Finally in 1960, UDTs were authorized an allowance of parachutes. Once they were received, a group of six qualified jumpers were tasked to conduct sixty water jumps each to test the concept of delivery by parachute. LTJG “Solly” Mimms was designated Officer in Charge, and his band of merry men included BM1 “Robby” Robbins”, TM1 “Pat” Patterson, MR1 Ken Lange, DM1 “Lenny” Waugh and SM2 Bill Bruhmuller.

Oceana Naval Air Station was tasked to provide CIA aircraft, rigger support and a parachute loft with drying tower, and Army riggers from the XVIII Airborne Corps provided training in T 10 parachute packing to the Navy riggers. In addition to conducting the jumps, this group designed and fabricated waterproof GP bags out of old ponchos, parachute webbing and floatation bladders. As a result of these tests, it was concluded that delivery by parachute was a viable concept and that it should be incorporated into UDT tactical doctrine as an operational capability.

Following this embryonic stage of development, jumping slowly became a part of the East Coast UDT’s culture. Additional quotas were obtained, the parachute allowance was slowly filled, a Quonset Hut was outfitted with packing tables, and selected personnel were trained and qualified as riggers at Fort Lee, VA.

In a series of initiatives, and with limited knowledge of the experiences and lessons learned east of the Mississippi, the West Coast UDTs received their first parachuting training on the island of Okinawa. In the late 1950s, it was commonplace for deployed UDT WESTPAC Detachments to request quotas for basic airborne training from the 1st Special Forces Group, Okinawa. However, it was not until early 1961 that LTJG George Raines, OIC, Second Platoon, UDT ELEVEN Detachment MIKE, received encouragement that his platoon of two officers and fifteen enlisted men may be attending the first course.

The platoon deployed from Yokosuka, Japan to Okinawa, arriving in typical UDT fashion with no money, no billeting and a long list of requirements. The Platoon Chief, PHC Gene Gagliardi, who years before had a hand in training the 1st SFG in SCUBA at Camp McGill, Japan, used his network of contacts to obtain billeting at Camp Sukeran. A week or so prior to training, the Platoon received a list of required exercises, thereby allowing them to “fine tune” their physical fitness program in accordance with the school’s requirements. With no budget for jump boots and uniform upgrades, all personnel spent their own funds for the necessary items.

The day before the course was to start, LTJG Raines was informed that SEVENTH Fleet had approved the request to train the platoon, but that the approval was for two officers and five enlisted men only. This caused significant consternation on both sides. The 1st SFG was in a time crunch and could not afford to train only seven personnel, and the platoon was faced with a morale problem because they had paid for their personal equipment, trained hard and were fired up and ready to go. With no time to go through channels, the 1st SFG solved the problem with the stroke of a pen, by inserting a “one” in front of the five.

Because the platoon was so highly motivated and in such good physical shape, the course was compressed from five weeks to two, and the five qualifying jumps from a helicopter were completed in one day. With the exception of EM3 Duane McDonald, who was injured during training and did not complete the course, two officers and fourteen enlisted men graduated on 31 March 1961.
Others in the Detachment included: LTJG Ted Hammond, SF1 Bob Fisher, SF1 Billy Steward, QM2 Clarence Betz, MN2 Gordon Brown, BM2 Frank Goerlich, BM2 Charlie Nelson, BM2 Joe Sehion, EN2 Billy Davis, SK2 Don “Herky” Hertenstein, RM2 Harry Monahan, MR3 Nick Dano, SN Curtis Hall and SN Bill Okesson.

As a result of the uniqueness of this training, the new graduates were featured on the front page of the next issue of the “Stars and Stripes,” which was read by virtually everyone in WESTPAC. Shortly thereafter, LTJG Raines was ordered to the SEVENTH Fleet Command Center to explain why so many personnel attended jump training without authorization. While his encounter with three Navy Captains did not result in an official reprimand, it can be said that his unofficial warning ranked amongst the highest for junior UDT Officers in the 1960s.

Following graduation, the Second Platoon reciprocated in May 1961 by cross training some of the 1st SFG jump cadre and command personnel in SCUBA in the waters off Okinawa. Thereinafter, a precedent was set for other WESTPAC Platoons to qualify as basic parachutists at the 1st SFG School, Camp Sukeran, Okinawa.

Chief Gene “Gag” Gagliardi then went on to qualify as a Jumpmaster and Instructor at the Army’s Test Site, Yuma, AZ, and as a Rigger at Fort Lee, VA. Subsequently he, along with DC1 Ed Reynolds, SM2 Joe Messenger and SK2 “Herky” Hertenstein qualified in High Altitude, Low Opening (HALO) techniques, also at Yuma. It was this cadre that established the foundation for all follow on parachuting on the West Coast.

When the SEAL Teams were established in 1962, SEAL Team TWO, with their base of experience and proximity to Fort Bragg, NC, had a significant advantage and capitalized on it by sending most of their personnel through the Army’s HALO School. Conversely, not all SEAL Team ONE personnel had been qualified as basic parachutists thus, a number were sent to the Navy’s parachute training facility at NAS, Lakehurst, NJ to qualify and evaluate the course. Teilweise war die Dringlichkeit, sich als Fallschirmspringer zu qualifizieren, der Grund für diese Entscheidung, da die Quoten in Fort Benning begrenzt waren und der Lakehurst-Kurs deutlich kürzer war. Der Kurs erwies sich jedoch als unbefriedigend, und alle darauffolgenden Ausbildungen kehrten an die Armee zurück. Nachdem das SEAL Team ONE die Grundausbildung im Fallschirmspringen abgeschlossen hatte, erwarb es den Großteil seiner HALO-Ausbildung und -Qualifikationen in der Yuma-Testeinrichtung der Armee.

Gleichzeitig erhielten die eingesetzten UDTs weiterhin ihr grundlegendes Sprungtraining in Okinawa, das jedoch sporadisch und unvorhersehbar war. Dementsprechend wurden im Februar 1965, während LCDR Olsons Amtszeit als CO, UDT ELEVEN, Quoten für vierundzwanzig Frogmen von UDT ELEVEN und UDT TWELVE erhalten, um die Airborne Class 25, Fort Benning, GA, zu besuchen. Es wurde eine Westküstenversion des „Gladiator“-Vorscreenings durchgeführt, und LT Jim Batton wurde als verantwortlicher Abteilungsleiter ausgewählt.

Als Ergebnis ihrer hervorragenden Leistung in Fort Benning wurde dieser Abteilung der erste und einzige Gruppenpreis verliehen, der jemals vom Airborne Department für herausragende Teamführung vergeben wurde. Von diesem Zeitpunkt an wurden weitere Quoten vergeben, bis praktisch jedem Mitglied von UDT ELEVEN und UDT TWELVE die Möglichkeit gegeben wurde, sich für die Luftwaffe zu qualifizieren. Es war jedoch nicht jedermanns Sache, und viele der Oldtimer an beiden Küsten entschieden sich dafür, die Sprungschule nicht zu besuchen. Umgekehrt gab es unter denen, die es taten, gemischte Gefühle über das Springen. Einige liebten es, andere mochten es nicht, und die Mehrheit akzeptierte es als einen notwendigen Teil des Froschmann-Seins.

In den frühen Stadien der Entwicklung gab es eine starke Zurückhaltung der Marine, Fallschirmspringen als taktisches Konzept zu akzeptieren. Dies lag zum großen Teil an der Testjumper-Lobby innerhalb von NAVAIR, die das Springen als eine Möglichkeit zum Überleben betrachtete und sich daher als einzige zum Springen qualifiziert hatte.

Ganz einfach, es wurde ein „Reisschüssel“-Problem, ähnlich der frühen Nichtakzeptanz von UDT SEAL Combat Swimmers durch die Tauchgemeinschaft der Navy. Dies äußerte sich in mehrfacher Hinsicht. Als das erste UDT Detachment 1956 das Army Airborne Training absolvierte, wollte die Navy es nicht als Qualifikation für das Tragen von Basic Jump Wings anerkennen.

Dieselbe Lobby begehrte auch eine spezielle militärische Qualifikation (J 856) für die Ernennung zum Master Naval Parachutist. Es beinhaltete statische Linien- und Freifallsprünge mit einer Verzögerung von bis zu 40 Sekunden sowie Wasser-, Sauerstoff- und Nachtfreifallsprünge. Als die SEAL-Teams voll einsatzfähig waren, waren diese Anforderungen für viele ihrer Mitglieder leicht erreichbar. Auch die Zulassung des Navy/Marine Corps Parachutist Insignia im Jahr 1963 öffnete offiziell die Tür und erweiterte den Anwendungsbereich des Fallschirmspringens im Marinedienst.

Danksagungen für die unschätzbare Unterstützung beim Schreiben dieses Artikels gehen an: CDR Leo Huddleston, LCDR Jim McGee, BMCM Bill Bruhmuller, PHCM Gene Gagliardi und EMC Frank Moncrief, alle ehemalige Frogmen und USN (im Ruhestand).

Über den Autor: Kapitän Olson kommandierte UDT ELEVEN, die Maritime Operations Group von USMACVSOG, die Naval Special Warfare Group TWO und die Naval Amphibious Base, Little Creek, VA. Er qualifizierte sich als Master Naval Parachutist und als er 1983 in den Ruhestand ging, hatte er über 2.200 Fallschirmsprünge gesammelt. Darüber hinaus nahmen er und CPO Peter Slempa 1965 an einer doppelten Nacht-Wasseraufnahme durch ein mit Fulton Skyhook ausgestattetes S2A-"Tracker"-Flugzeug mit einer Fluggeschwindigkeit von 120 Knoten teil.


Schau das Video: Kane Transformation. From 12 To 51 Years Old. WWE Superstars (Dezember 2021).