Nachrichten

Byzantinisches, reifendes Mosaik

Byzantinisches, reifendes Mosaik


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Das zweitgrößte Mosaik in Syrien, das zu einer frühbyzantinischen Kirche gehört, wurde entdeckt

In der archäologischen Stätte Uqayribat, etwa 65 Kilometer nördlich der Provinz Hama in Zentralsyrien, wurden die Überreste eines großen Mosaiks aus frühbyzantinischer Zeit ausgegraben. Messen ungefähr 450 Quadratmeter Fläche, es wird angenommen, dass es die zweitgrößtes Mosaikfragment, das im Land gefunden wurde, nach dem in Taybat al-Imam entdeckten.

Gemäß der Generaldirektion Altertümer und Museen (DGAM), Das Mosaik war einst Teil eines Kirchenbodens aus dem 5. Jahrhundert nach Christus. Der in Teilen noch heute existierende Kirchenbau aus Kalkstein besteht aus drei großen Teilen: einem Hauptbereich in der Mitte, flankiert von zwei Pavillons auf jeder Seite.

Das freigelegte Mosaik besteht aus kleinen farbigen Steinen und zeigt eine Vielzahl von Figuren, die eine religiöse Bedeutung zu haben scheinen. Weiter ausarbeiten, DGAM-Direktor Mahmoud Hamoud genannt -

Die Szenen zeigen eine Vielzahl seltener geometrischer, vegetativer und tierischer Formen mit bekannten religiösen Konnotationen, darunter Pfauen, Flusspferde, Landtauben, Schafe und Hirsche sowie die Lebensbaumszenen der Fruchtbarkeit und Erneuerbarkeit.

Neben den Kunstwerken enthält das byzantinische Kirchenmosaik auch 14 Textstücke, die in griechischer Sprache verfasst und in geografische Rahmen gesetzt sind. Die Texte beziehen sich laut Hamoud auf die Namen der Personen, die die Arbeit finanziert haben.

Uqayribat (auch Uqeirbat oder Uzeiribat geschrieben) liegt im Bezirk Salamiyah im syrischen Gouvernement Hama und gilt als Standort der römischen Stadt Occaraba. Die Stadt wurde 2014 im Rahmen des syrischen Bürgerkriegs vom IS erobert und im September 2017 von der syrisch-arabischen Armee zurückerobert.

Die archäologische Stätte von Uqayribat wurde vor drei Monaten von der syrischen Armee freigelegt, derzeit laufen die Ausgrabungsarbeiten. Wie Hamoud mitteilte, werden die dort ausgegrabenen Artefakte in das Hama National Museum überführt.

Syrien: Heimat einiger der ältesten Mosaike der Welt

Es muss beachtet werden, dass Syrien einige der ältesten Mosaike der Welt beherbergt, von denen einige bis etwa 1500 v. Chr. zurückreichen. Obwohl aus verschiedenen Materialien hergestellt, von farbigen Steinen über Glas bis hin zu Muscheln, können syrische Mosaike im Wesentlichen in zwei Arten eingeteilt werden: Steinmosaiken und Holzmosaiken. Archäologische Beweise weisen darauf hin, dass Mauerwerk die ursprüngliche Tradition ist.

Andererseits wird angenommen, dass die neueren Holzmosaiken etwa 300 Jahre alt sind. Viele der im Laufe der Jahre entdeckten Mosaikfragmente werden heute im syrischen Maarrat al-Numan Museum aufbewahrt, das übrigens das größte Mosaikmuseum im Nahen Osten ist. Infolge des anhaltenden syrischen Bürgerkriegs wurden jedoch viele der berühmten Mosaiken des Landes zerstört.

Im März letzten Jahres stolperte beispielsweise eine Gruppe von Archäologen über einen 2.600 Jahre alter Schlosseingang unter einem Schrein, der von ISIS abgerissen wurde (seit 2014). Der Nabi-Yunus-Schrein aus dem 12. Diese Moschee, die früher als Kirche diente, wurde vor Ort als letzte Ruhestätte des Propheten Jona verehrt, der im Koran als Yunas bekannt ist.

Zu ihrer Überraschung entdeckten Archäologen bei der Bewertung der durch Daesh-Terroristen verursachten Schäden einen bisher unbekannten Tempel und (möglichen) Palasteingang aus einer Zeit vor etwa 2.600 Jahren, die der Epoche des Neuassyrischen Reiches entspricht.


Das Byzantine Institute und Dumbarton Oaks Feldforschungsaufzeichnungen und -papiere

Diese Sammlung enthält Feldforschungsaufzeichnungen und -papiere, die von Mitarbeitern des Byzantine Institute und Dumbarton Oaks sowie von Thomas Whittemore und Paul Underwood zwischen den 1920er und 2000er Jahren erstellt wurden. Es besteht aus Korrespondenz, Protokollen, Finanzunterlagen, Logbüchern, Feldarbeitsnotizbüchern, Forschungsnotizen, Grundrissen, Karten, überdimensionalen Zeichnungen, Nachzeichnungen, Gemälden, Fotografien, Filmen, Zeitungsausschnitten und Publikationsmaterialien. Die Sammlung ist nach Entstehungsmethode und Medium in chronologischer oder Feldforschungsreihenfolge geordnet. Es ist in 2 große Untergruppen unterteilt: Administrative Aufzeichnungen und Feldarbeitspapiere.

Der Großteil der Sammlung umfasst die Jahrzehnte zwischen den 1930er und 1980er Jahren, wobei der größte Teil der Materialien zu Projekten der Hagia Sophia und Kariye Camii in Istanbul sowie zu späteren Projekten in der Türkei, Zypern und dem heutigen Mazedonien gehört. Die Anordnung dieser Sammlung veranschaulicht die frühen Operationen und die Entwicklung des Byzantinischen Instituts durch Thomas Whittemores Tod im Jahr 1950, die Auflösung des Instituts im Jahr 1962 und die von Dumbarton Oaks unterstützten Feldarbeiten in den 1960er bis 2000er Jahren. Es erfasst auch die Verwaltungsangelegenheiten und die täglichen Feldarbeitsaktivitäten, die sich auf die von den Feldarbeitern verwendeten Konservierungs- und Restaurierungstechniken konzentrierten.

Es gibt ein Addendum mit verfügbarem Forschungsmaterial, das von ICFA-Mitarbeitern zusammengestellt wurde.

Termine

Schöpfer

Sprache der Materialien

Physische Beschreibung

Bedingungen für den Zugang

Nutzungsbedingungen

Ausmaß

Zusätzliche Beschreibung

Historische Anmerkung

Das Byzantine Institute (allgemein bekannt als Byzantine Institute of America) wurde 1930 von Thomas Whittemore gegründet. Am 23. Mai 1934 wurde das Byzantine Institute offiziell zum Byzantine Institute, Inc., als es vom Staat Massachusetts eine Charta ausgestellt wurde. Seine Mission war es, die byzantinischen Denkmäler, Stätten, Architektur und Kunst im ehemaligen Byzantinischen Reich zu erhalten, zu restaurieren, zu studieren und zu dokumentieren. Das erste offizielle Projekt des Instituts war die Untersuchung und Dokumentation von Wandmalereien in den Klöstern am Roten Meer in Ägypten, die zwischen 1929 und 1931 stattfanden produzierte überdimensionale Aquarelle von Heiligen (Saint George, Mercurius und Theodore Strateletes) und religiösen Szenen (The Resurrection and Deësis).

Im Juni 1931 erlaubte Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, der erste Präsident der Republik Türkei, Whittemore und dem Byzantinischen Institut, die ursprünglichen Mosaike in der Hagia Sophia freizulegen und zu restaurieren, die mit islamischen Motiven bedeckt waren, als die Kirche in eine Moschee umgewandelt wurde 1453 von den osmanischen Türken. Mit Genehmigung der türkischen Regierung begann das Institut im Dezember 1931 mit der Konservierungs- und Restaurierungskampagne. Während sich die Feldforschung hauptsächlich auf Stätten in Istanbul wie die Hagia Sophia und Kariye Camii konzentrierte, wurden die Erhaltungsbemühungen auch auf Zypern und das heutige Mazedonien ausgedehnt.

Im Juni 1950 starb Thomas Whittemore, der Gründer des Byzantine Institute, auf dem Weg zum Außenministerium von John Foster Dulles. Anschließend wurde Paul Atkins Underwood zum Fieldwork Director des Byzantine Institute ernannt, eine Position, die er bis zu seinem Tod am 22. September 1968 innehatte. Während dies eine Übergangszeit für das Institut war, übernahm Underwood die Aufsicht über Reparatur und Restaurierung in der Hagia Sophia und Kariye Camii. Diese Bemühungen führten zur Freilegung des Pflasters aus dem 7. Die Projekte führten auch zu mehreren Veröffentlichungen, wie zum Beispiel Die Mosaiken der Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, das Porträt des Kaisers Alexander: ein Bericht über die Arbeit des Byzantinischen Instituts 1959 und 1960 von Paul A. Underwood und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. Wegen unzureichender Finanzierung stellte das Byzantinische Institut 1962 offiziell seine Verwaltungs- und Feldarbeit ein und übertrug seine Vermögenswerte an Dumbarton Oaks. Im Januar 1963 übernahmen Dumbarton Oaks und das Kuratorium der Harvard University alle zuvor vom Institut initiierten Feldforschungsaktivitäten. Dumbarton Oaks leitete und sponserte neue Feldforschungsprojekte in der Türkei (Kirche St. Polyeuktos), Zypern (Kirche der Panagia Amasgou in Monagri), Syrien (Dibsi Faraj) und dem heutigen Mazedonien (Bargala).

Anordnung

Andere Findmittel

Verwahrungsgeschichte

Die Aufzeichnungen und Unterlagen der Feldarbeit des Byzantine Institute wurden in den 1950er Jahren in zwei Sendungen nach Dumbarton Oaks überführt und zunächst an verschiedenen Orten wie dem Büro von Paul Underwood, den Dumbarton Oaks Archives und der Research Library gelagert. Aus der Bibliothek des Byzantinischen Instituts in Paris enthielt die erste Lieferung im Mai 1952 archäologische Papiere, Notizbücher, Fotografien, Negative, Diagramme und Zeichnungen. Im Januar 1957 enthielt die zweite Lieferung überdimensionale Pläne und Zeichnungen aus den Klöstern des Roten Meeres, Krampfkarten aus der Hagia Sophia, Filme, Negative, koptische Textilien und Muster von Mosaikwürfeln. Im Dezember 1995 wurde entdeckt, dass im American Research Institute in der Türkei (ARIT-Istanbul) 14 Feldarbeitsnotizbücher aufbewahrt wurden. Die Übergabe der Notebooks von ARIT an ICFA wurde schließlich im Januar 1997 vom Vorstand und Anthony Greenwood, Direktor von ARIT-Istanbul, genehmigt.

Mitte der 1990er Jahre gab Professor Bentley Layton, Goff-Professor für Religionswissenschaft (altes Christentum) und Professor für nahöstliche Sprachen und Zivilisationen (koptisch) an der Yale University, die Aquarellkopien des ägyptischen Klosters St. Anthony zurück, die er hatte um eine fotografische Bestandsaufnahme koptischer Gemälde in Kirchen mit P. Leroy und Professor Paul van Moorsel in Ägypten.

Unmittelbare Erwerbsquelle

Zwischen 1993 und 2012 erhielt das ICFA den Rest der Feldarbeitsdateien des Byzantine Institute und von Dumbarton Oaks von den Dumbarton Oaks Archives and Research Library. Die Artikel wurden nach dem Namen der Person, Institution oder des Projekts in alphabetischer Reihenfolge zum Zeitpunkt des Eingangs in Ordnern geordnet. Insgesamt ist es aufgrund der geringen Dokumentation schwierig, die gesamte Erwerbsgeschichte der Sammlung zu ermitteln.

ICFA erhielt im September 2012 zusätzliches Kariye Camii-Material von Robert Ousterhout. Zu den Materialien gehören überdimensionale Zeichnungen, architektonische Baupläne, Notizen und Berichte.

Vorhandensein und Ort von Kopien

  1. Klöster am Roten Meer, Ägypten (Fotos) - Siehe die Online-Ausstellung mit dem Titel "Before Byzantiium: The Early Archaeological Activities of Thomas Whittemore (1871-1931)," http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/special-projects /online-ausstellungen/vor-byzanz/rot-meer-kloster-galerie
  2. Red Sea Monasteries, Egypt (Kinofilm) - http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/moving-image-collections/red-sea-monasteries und die Online-Ausstellung mit dem Titel "A Truthful Record: The Byzantine Institute Filme," http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/special-projects/online-exhibitions/a-truthful-record/history/red-sea-monastery
  3. Konservierung von Mosaiken in der Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (Fotos) - http://via.lib.harvard.edu/via/deliver/deepLinkResults?kw2=byzantine%20institute%20of%20america&kw1=hagia%20sophia&bool1=and&index2=Name& .amprepository=Title& .amprepository Dumbarton%20Oaks
  4. Restaurierungsarbeiten in der Hagia Sophia und Kariye Camii, Istanbul (Kinofilme) - http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa/moving-image-collections und die Online-Ausstellung mit dem Titel "A Truthful Record: The Byzantine Institute Films ," http://www.doaks.org//icfa/truthful-record

Zugehörige Beschreibungseinheiten bei Dumbarton Oaks

  1. Dumbarton Oaks-Archiv. http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/dumbarton-oaks-archives.
  2. Dumbarton Oaks-Museum. http://www.doaks.org/museum.
  3. Frühe archäologische Projekte in Verbindung mit Thomas Whittemore, 1910er-1930er Jahre, MS.BZ.017. Bildsammlungen und Feldforschungsarchive.
  4. Bildsammlungen und Feldforschungsarchive (d. h. Schwarz-Weiß-Fotosammlung, Site Books, Leica Binder und Office-Dateien des Kurators). http://www.doaks.org/library-archives/icfa.
  5. Paul Atkins Underwood Research Papers, Ca. 1936-1950, MS.BZ.019. Bildsammlungen und Feldforschungsarchive.
  6. Thomas Whittemore Papiere, Ca. 1875-1966, MS.BZ.013. Bildsammlungen und Feldforschungsarchive.
  1. Archiv Th. Whittemore. Musée du Louvre, Département des Antiquités égyptiennes, Sektion Copte. Paris, Frankreich.
  2. Bakhmeteff-Archiv der russischen und osteuropäischen Kultur. Bibliothek für seltene Bücher und Handschriften, Bibliotheken der Columbia University. New York, NY. http://library.columbia.edu/locations/rbml/units/bakhmeteff.html.
  3. Bernard und Mary Berenson Papers (1880-2002). Biblioteca Berenson, Villa I Tatti, Harvard University Center for Renaissance Studies. Florenz, Italien. http://oasis.lib.harvard.edu/oasis/deliver/

Literaturverzeichnis

  • Aleksova, Blaga und Cyril Mango. "Bargala: Ein vorläufiger Bericht." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971): 265-281. doi:10.2307/1291311.
  • Belting, Hans, Cyril A. Mango und Doula Mouriki. Die Mosaiken und Fresken von St. Mary Pammakaristos (Fethiye Camii) in Istanbul. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 15. [Washington]: Locust Valley, N.Y: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, 1978.
  • Boyd, Susan, Richard Anderson, Victoria Jenssen, Lawrence Majewski und Arthur Seltman. “Die Kirche der Panagia Amasgou, Monagri, Zypern und ihre Wandmalereien.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 28 (1974): 277-349. doi:10.2307/1291361.
  • Byzantinisches Institut von Amerika. Die Mosaiken der Haghia Sophia in Istanbul Dritter vorläufiger Bericht, 1935-1938 ausgeführte Arbeiten Die kaiserlichen Porträts der Südgalerie. Boston, MA: Gedruckt von J. Johnson bei der Oxford University Press, 1942.
  • Byzantinisches Institut von Amerika. Bekanntmachung. vol. 1. Boston, MA: Byzantinisches Institut, 1946.
  • Byzantinisches Institut von Amerika. Koptische Studien zu Ehren von Walter Ewing Crum. Bekanntmachung. vol. 2. Boston, MA: Byzantinisches Institut, 1950.
  • Byzantinisches Institut von Amerika. Mosaiken der Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Boston, MA: Byzantinisches Institut, 1950.
  • Byzantinisches Institut von Amerika und (Türkei) Istanbul. Der Archäologische Park in Istanbul Memorandum. Boston, MA, 1948.
  • Carr, Annemarie Weyl. „Dumbarton Oaks und das Erbe des byzantinischen Zyperns.“ Vorderasiatische Archäologie 71, Nr. 1/2 (2008): 95-103. doi:10.2307/20361353.
  • Carr, Annemarie Weyl und Andreas Nicolaïdès, Hrsg. Asinou im Wandel der Zeit: Studien zur Architektur und Wandmalereien der Panagia Phorbiotissa, Zypern. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 43. Washington, D.C. und Cambridge, MA: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2012.
  • Konstabler, Giles. „Dumbarton Oaks und byzantinische Feldarbeit.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 37 (1983): 171-176. doi:10.2307/1291485.
  • Cormack, Robin und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. “Die Mosaiken von St. Sophia in Istanbul: Die Zimmer über dem Südwestvorraum und der Rampe.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 31 (1977): 175-251. doi:10.2307/1291407.
  • Galatariotou, Catia. Die Entstehung eines Heiligen: Das Leben, die Zeiten und die Heiligung von Neophytos dem Einsiedler. Cambridge und New York: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
  • Harper, Richard P. und Tony J. Wilkinson. "Ausgrabungen in Dibsi Faraj, Nordsyrien, 1972-1974: Eine Vorbemerkung über die Stätte und ihre Denkmäler mit einem Anhang." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29 (1975): 319-338. doi:10.2307/1291379.
  • Harrison, R. Martin. „Eine Konstantinopolitanische Hauptstadt in Barcelona.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973): 297-300. doi:10.2307/1291345.
  • Harrison, R. Martin. Ausgrabungen in Saraçhane in Istanbul. 2 Bd. Princeton, NJ und Washington, D.C.: Princeton University Press und Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1986.
  • Harrison, R. Martin und Nezih Firatli. „Ausgrabungen in Saraçhane in Istanbul: Erster vorläufiger Bericht.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 19 (1965): 231-236. doi:10.2307/1291232.
  • Harrison, R. Martin und Nezih Firatli. „Ausgrabungen in Saraçhane in Istanbul: Zweiter und dritter vorläufiger Bericht.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966): 223-238. doi:10.2307/1291247.
  • Harrison, R. Martin und Nezih Firatli. „Ausgrabungen in Saraçhane in Istanbul: Vierter vorläufiger Bericht.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 21 (1967): 273-278. doi:10.2307/1291267.
  • Harrison, R. Martin, Nezih Firatli und John W. Hayes. „Ausgrabungen in Saraçhane in Istanbul: Fünfter vorläufiger Bericht mit einem Beitrag zu einer Töpfergruppe aus dem 7. Jahrhundert.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 195-216. doi:10.2307/1291282.
  • Hawkins, Ernest J. W. „Weitere Beobachtungen zum Narthex-Mosaik in St. Sophia in Istanbul.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 151-166. doi:10.2307/1291278.
  • Hayes, John W. Ausgrabungen in Saraçhane in Istanbul. 2 Bd. Princeton, NJ und Washington, D.C.: Princeton University Press und Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1992.
  • Hjort, Øystein. „Die Skulptur von Kariye Camii.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 33 (1979): 199-289. doi:10.2307/1291438.
  • Kitzinger, Ernst. "Paul Atkins Underwood: (1902-1968)." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23/24 (1969): 1-6. doi:10.2307/1291287.
  • Labrusse, Rémi und Nadia Podzemskaia. „Naissance d’une vocation: aux sources de la carrière byzantine de Thomas Whittemore.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 54 (2000): 43-69. doi:10.2307/1291832.
  • MacDonald, William L. „Die Aufdeckung byzantinischer Mosaiken in der Hagia Sophia.“ Archäologie 4, Nr. 2 (1951): 89-93.
  • Makride, Theodor. „Das Kloster von Lips und die Bestattungen der Palaeologi.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 253-277. doi:10.2307/1291214.
  • Mainstone, Rowland J. „Die Rekonstruktion der Tympana von St. Sophia in Istanbul.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23/24 (1969): 353-368. doi:10.2307/1291296.
  • Mango, Cyrill. „Das Kloster St. Abercius in Kurşunlu (Elegmi) in Bithynien.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 169-176. doi:10.2307/1291279.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. "Zusätzliche Bemerkungen." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 299-315. doi:10.2307/1291216.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. „Bericht über die Feldarbeit in Istanbul und Zypern, 1962-1963.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 319-340. doi:10.2307/1291217.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. „Die Apsis-Mosaiken von St. Sophia in Istanbul. Bericht über die im Jahr 1964 durchgeführten Arbeiten.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 19 (1965): 113-151. doi:10.2307/1291228.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. „Die Einsiedelei des Heiligen Neophytos und ihre Wandmalereien.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 20 (1966): 119-206. doi:10.2307/1291245.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. „Zusätzliche Funde bei Fenari Isa Camii, Istanbul.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 177-184. doi:10.2307/1291280.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. „Die Mosaiken der Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Die Kirchenväter im Nordtympanon.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 26 (1972): 1-41. doi:10.2307/1291315.
  • Mango, Cyril, Ernest J. W. Hawkins und Susan Boyd. „Das Kloster St. Chrysostomos in Koutsovendis (Zypern) und seine Wandmalereien. Teil I: Beschreibung.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 44 (1990): 63-94. doi:10.2307/1291618.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ihor evčenko. „Überreste der Kirche St. Polyeuktos in Konstantinopel.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961): 243-247. doi:10.2307/1291183.
  • Mango, Cyril und Ihor evčenko. “Einige Kirchen und Klöster am Südufer des Marmarameers.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 27 (1973): 235-277. doi:10.2307/1291343.
  • Megaw, Arthur H. S. „Byzantinische Architektur und Dekoration in Zypern: Metropolitan oder provinziell?“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 28 (1974): 57-88. doi:10.2307/1291355.
  • Megaw, Arthur H. S. „Anmerkungen zur jüngsten Arbeit des Byzantinischen Instituts in Istanbul.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 17 (1963): 333-371. doi:10.2307/1291197.
  • Megaw, Arthur H. S. „Die ursprüngliche Form der Theotokos-Kirche von Constantine Lips.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 18 (1964): 279-298. doi:10.2307/1291215.
  • Megaw, Arthur H. S. „Ergänzende Ausgrabungen auf einer Burganlage in Paphos, Zypern, 1970-1971.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 26 (1972): 323-343. doi:10.2307/1291325.
  • Megaw, Arthur H. S. Kourion: Ausgrabungen im Bischofsbezirk. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 38. Washington, D.C. und Cambridge, MA: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, herausgegeben von Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Megaw, A.H.S. und Ernest J.W. Hawkins. „Die Kirche der Heiligen Apostel in Perachorio, Zypern, und ihre Fresken.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 16 (1962): 277-348. doi:10.2307/1291165.
  • Megaw, A.H.S. und Ernest J.W. Hawkins. Die Kirche der Panagia Kanakariá in Lythrankomi auf Zypern: ihre Mosaiken und Fresken. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 14. Washington, D.C. und Locust Valley, NY: Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, Treuhänder der Harvard University, 1977.
  • Oates, David. „Ein zusammenfassender Bericht über die Ausgrabungen des Byzantinischen Instituts in der Kariye Camii: 1957 und 1958.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 14 (1960): 223-231. doi:10.2307/1291151.
  • Oikonomides, Nicolas. „Leo VI und das Narthex-Mosaik der Heiligen Sophia.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 30 (1976): 151-172. doi:10.2307/1291393.
  • Oikonomides, Nicolas. „Einige Bemerkungen zum Apsis-Mosaik der St. Sophia.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39 (1985): 111-115. doi:10.2307/1291518.
  • Ousterhout, Robert G. Die Architektur der Kariye Camii in Istanbul. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 25. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1987.
  • Papacostas, Tassos, Cyril Mango und Michael Grünbart. “Die Geschichte und Architektur des Klosters des Heiligen Johannes Chrysostomos in Koutsovendis, Zypern.” Dumbarton Oaks Papers 61 (2007): 25-156. doi:10.2307/25472047.
  • Rosser, John. „Ausgrabungen in Saranda Kolones, Paphos, Zypern, 1981-1983.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 39 (1985): 81-97. doi:10.2307/1291516.
  • Sheppard, Carl D. „Ein Radiokarbon-Datum für die hölzernen Balken in der Westgalerie der St. Sophia, Istanbul.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 19 (1965): 237-240. doi:10.2307/1291233.
  • Striker, Cecil L. und Doğan Kuban. „Arbeiten bei Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: Erster Vorbericht.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 21 (1967): 267-271. doi:10.2307/1291266.
  • Striker, Cecil L. und Doğan Kuban. „Arbeit bei Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: Zweiter Vorbericht.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 22 (1968): 185-193. doi:10.2307/1291281.
  • Striker, Cecil L. und Doğan Kuban. „Arbeiten bei Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: Dritter und Vierter Vorbericht.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971): 251-258. doi:10.2307/1291309.
  • Striker, Cecil L. und Doğan Kuban. „Arbeit bei Kalenderhane Camii in Istanbul: Fünfter vorläufiger Bericht (1970-74).“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 29 (1975): 307-318. doi:10.2307/1291378.
  • Striker, Cecil L., Doğan Kuban, Albrecht Berger und J. Lawrence Angel. Kalenderhane in Istanbul: Abschlussberichte über die archäologische Erkundung und Restaurierung von Kalenderhane Camii 1966-1978. Mainz: Verlag Philipp von Zabern, 1997.
  • Teteriatnikov, Natalia B. Mosaics of Hagia Sophia, Istanbul: The Fossati Restoration and the Work of the Byzantine Institute. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 1998.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. „Erster vorläufiger Bericht über die Restaurierung der Fresken in der Kariye Camii in Istanbul durch das Byzantinische Institut 1952-1954.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 9/10 (1956): 253-288. doi:10.2307/1291098.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. „Notizen zur Arbeit des Byzantinischen Instituts in Istanbul: 1954.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 9/10 (1956): 291-300. doi:10.2307/1291099.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. „Zweiter vorläufiger Bericht über die Restaurierung der Fresken in der Kariye Camii in Istanbul durch das Byzantinische Institut 1955.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 11 (1957): 173-220. doi:10.2307/1291107.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. „Dritter vorläufiger Bericht über die Restaurierung der Fresken in der Kariye Camii in Istanbul durch das Byzantinische Institut, 1956.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 12 (1958): 235-265. doi:10.2307/1291122.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. „Notizen zur Arbeit des Byzantinischen Instituts in Istanbul: 1955-1956.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 12 (1958): 269-287. doi:10.2307/1291123.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. „Vierter vorläufiger Bericht über die Restaurierung der Fresken in der Kariye Camii in Istanbul durch das Byzantinische Institut, 1957-1958.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13 (1959): 185-212. doi:10.2307/1291133.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. „Notizen zur Arbeit des Byzantinischen Instituts in Istanbul: 1957.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 13 (1959): 215-228. doi:10.2307/1291134.
  • Underwood, Paul Atkins. Der Kariye-Djami. Vols. 1-4. Bollingen Serie 70. New York: Bollingen Foundation, 1966.
  • Underwood, Paul A. und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. „Die Mosaiken der Hagia Sophia in Istanbul: Das Porträt des Kaisers Alexander: Ein Bericht über die Arbeit des Byzantinischen Instituts in den Jahren 1959 und 1960.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 15 (1961): 187-217. doi:10.2307/1291180.
  • Underwood, Paul A. und Lawrence J. Majewski. „Notizen zur Arbeit des Byzantinischen Instituts in Istanbul: 1957-1959 Die Konservierung eines byzantinischen Freskos, das in Etyemez, Istanbul entdeckt wurde.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 14 (1960): 205-222. doi:10.2307/1291150.
  • Wellesz, Egon und Institute of America Byzantine. Östliche Elemente im westlichen Gesang: Studien zur Frühgeschichte der Kirchenmusik. Monumenta Musicae Byzantinae. Subsidia, v. 2, Amerikanische Serie Nr. 1. Oxford: Gedruckt bei The University Press, Oxford, für das Byzantine Institute, 1947.
  • Whittemore, Thomas. Die Mosaiken der Hagia Sophia in Istanbul: Vorläufiger Bericht über das Werk des ersten vierten Jahres, 1931/1932-1934/38. Paris: Gedruckt bei der Oxford University Press für das Byzantinische Institut, 1933.
  • Whittemore, Thomas. Die Mosaiken von St. Sophia in Istanbul. Zweiter vorläufiger Bericht. In den Jahren 1933 und 1934 ausgeführte Arbeiten. Die Mosaiken des südlichen Vestibüls. Paris: Oxford University Press für das Byzantinische Institut, 1936.
  • Winfield, David C. „Berichte über die Arbeit in Monagri, Lagoudera und Hagios Neophytos, Zypern, 1969/1970.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 25 (1971): 259-264. doi:10.2307/1291310.
  • Winfield, David C. Byzantinische Mosaikarbeit: Hinweise zur Geschichte, Technik und Farbe. Lefkosia, Zypern: Mufflon Publications, 2005.
  • Winfield, David C. und Ernest J. W. Hawkins. „Die Liebfrauenkirche in Asinou, Zypern. Ein Bericht über die Jahreszeiten 1965 und 1966.“ Dumbarton Oaks Papers 21 (1967): 261-266. doi:10.2307/1291265.
  • Winfield, David C. und June Winfield. Die Kirche der Panaghia Tou Arakos in Lagoudhera, Zypern: Die Gemälde und ihre malerische Bedeutung. Dumbarton Oaks Studies 37. Washington, D.C.: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2003.

Nachtrag: Angesammelte Forschungsmaterialien von ICFA-Mitarbeitern

  1. Ordner 1: Formulare zum Entfernen von Dokumenten/Elementen und Formulare zur Übergabe von Archiven
  2. Ordner 2: Findbuch (Schwarzbuch) von Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (Ordner 1 von 4)
  3. Ordner 3: Kopie des Findbuchs (roter Ordner) von Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (Ordner 2 von 4) - Ordner 4: Kopie des Findbuchs von Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (Ordner 3 von 4)
  4. Ordner 5: Kopie des Findbuchs von Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982 (Ordner 4 von 4)
  5. Ordner 6: Entwurf eines Findbuchs von Jeff Schlossberg, ca. 1982
  6. Ordner 7: Kopien von Inventaren, 1950er Jahre - Fotokopien von Inventarlisten und Korrespondenz bezüglich des Transfers von Materialien aus der Bibliothek des Byzantinischen Instituts in Paris nach Dumbarton Oaks
  1. Ordner 8: Thomas Whittemore und das Byzantine Institute, historische und literarische Quellen – Enthält Kopien von Artikeln oder Auszügen, die sich auf Thomas Whittemore beziehen, aus den Dumbarton Oaks Papers, dem Harvard Crimson und anderen Quellen. Enthält außerdem Kopien von: „Convoy to West Africa“ von Graham Greene, „Remote People“ von Evelyn Waugh, „The Elusive Mr. Whittemore, the Early Years“ von Holger Klein und andere. Enthält auch Fotokopien der Korrespondenz in Bezug auf Whittemore aus der Sammlung Robert Van Nice, ebenfalls in ICFA.
  2. Ordner 9: Notizen von Natalia Teteriatnikov - Enthält Fotografien von Thomas Whittemore, Korrespondenz mit William MacDonald und anderen, interne Memos und verschiedene Notizen über die Sammlung einschließlich ihrer Konservierung. Teteriatnikov war von 1986 bis 2007 ehemaliger Kurator des Byzantinischen Foto- und Feldforschungsarchivs.
  3. Ordner 10: „Inventar der Proben, die vom Byzantinischen Institut der Hagia Sophia entnommen wurden“
  4. Ordner 11: Kopien von Artikeln zu Alexandre Piankoff – Enthält „Deux peintures de Saints Militaires au Monastère de Saint Antoine“, Les Cahiers Coptes 10 (1956): 17-25.
  5. Ordner 12: Materialien in Bezug auf das Byzantine Institute aus den Dumbarton Oaks Archives - Enthält Besprechungszusammenfassungen und Korrespondenz, [ca. 1945-1962]
  6. Ordner 13: Butler, Lawrence, „BERICHT AN DEN DIREKTOR: Über die Bestände an Material in Bezug auf die Kirche der Hagia Sophia in Istanbul in Dumbarton Oaks“ – Enthält einen Bericht, den Lawrence Butler Robert W. Thompson im Februar 1985 vorgelegt hat
  7. Ordner 14: Korrespondenz aus den Papieren von Robert Woods Bliss und Mildred Barnes Bliss, ca. 1860-1969, Harvard University Archives - Enthält Kopien der Korrespondenz zwischen Thomas Whittemore und Robert und Mildred Bliss von 1937 bis 1941

Verarbeitungsinformationen

Bestandsaufnahme, Sammlungsanordnung und Verarbeitung wurden zunächst zwischen 1981 und 1982 von Jeff Schlosberg, ICFA Intern, durchgeführt. Die Sammlung wurde in chronologischer Reihenfolge und dann nach Standorten organisiert. Zwischen den 1990er und 2000er Jahren wurde die Sammlung von ehemaligen Mitarbeitern und Praktikanten des ICFA, darunter Natalia Teteriatnikov, Gerrianne Schaad und Rebecca Bruner, neu geordnet und aufbereitet. Die Sammlung wurde nach dem Nachnamen des Autors und dann nach dem Ort neu geordnet.

Im Sommer 2010 schlossen Rona Razon, Archivar, Anna McWilliams und Sharon Ke (ehemalige ICFA-Praktikanten) die Digitalisierung der Kariye Camii-Schwarzweißfotos ab, um einen besseren Zugang zu den Bildern zu ermöglichen. Sie wurden in der alten Katalogisierungssoftware von ICFA namens OLIVIA katalogisiert.

Im September 2010 haben Rona Razon, Archivarin, und Laurian Douthett, Archivarassistentin, die bestehende Findmittel- und Sammlungsanordnung evaluiert. Die ICFA-Mitarbeiter beschlossen, die Sammlung noch einmal in chronologischer Reihenfolge und dann nach Standorten auf der Grundlage des Inventars von Schlosberg und der ursprünglichen Übergabelisten des Byzantinischen Instituts zu reorganisieren. Die ICFA-Mitarbeiter sind der Meinung, dass die Sammlung chronologisch oder nach Feldforschungsprojekten geordnet werden sollte, um die Gegenstände wieder in ihre ursprüngliche Anordnung zu bringen und die Verwaltungs- und Feldforschungsgeschichte der Organisationen vollständig hervorzuheben.

Sammlungsbewertung, Anordnung, Inventarisierung und ein Entwurf einer Findhilfe wurden im September 2012 von Razon und Douthett abgeschlossen. Die Archivbearbeitung wurde im Februar 2013 von Elizabeth Bayley, Archivist Assistant, abgeschlossen. Das Findbuch wurde von Rona Razon, Shalimar White, Manager des ICFA, Günder Varinlioğlu, ehemaliger byzantinischer Assistant Curator, und Fani Gargova, Byzantine Research Associate, herausgegeben und fertiggestellt im April 2013.

Im Februar 2014 schlossen Gargova und Megan Cook, ICFA Research Associate, die Digitalisierung der Fotografien der Rotmeerklöster aus den Site Books Nr. 18-20, um einen besseren Zugang zu den Bildern zu ermöglichen.


Mosaiken in Ravenna – An den Anfängen der christlichen Kunst

Im Alten Testament verkündete der Prophet Jesaja seine Botschaft an Juda und Jerusalem zwischen c742 – 701 v. Chr., vor dem Christusereignis.

Seine Worte sagten nicht nur viele Ereignisse im Leben Jesu Christi voraus, sondern gaben auch eine Vision der sicheren Hoffnung, was diese Worte für eine große Mehrheit der Menschen bedeuten würden.

Christianity, Judaism and Islam all share one thing in common, a monotheistic faith in other words, a belief in one supreme God of all.

‘Arise, shine: for thy light is come, and the glory of the Lord is risen upon thee…and the Gentiles shall come to thy light, and kings to the brightness of thy rising…all they from Seba and Sheba shall come: they shall bring gold and incense and they shall shew forth praises of the Lord’.

Christianity arose out of a collective experience of Jesus the Christ as God by a great many people who met or listened to him and heard his words first hand.

It is an experience that has been enriched and enlarged over a very long time.

The faith of Judaism was expressed in the teachings and writings of the prophets of the Old Testament. They ultimately found fulfillment in those of the New Testament.

Christians, unlike their Jewish colleagues who did not convert to the new religion, believed they had ‘witnessed’ the fulfillment of a prophecy written in the Old Testament that God would become flesh and dwell among us.

The stunning mosaic image of Christ Pantocrator (Almighty, All Powerful) in the Byzantine Church of St. Saviour in Chora (now a mosque) in Istanbul presents Jesus as the saviour of mankind.

He is the bringer of a new law, one he holds firmly in his left hand, with his right hand raised in a gesture of blessing.

Jesus the Christ proclaimed, by his actions, that God’s love and forgiveness was available to everyone and unconditional. This great revelation gave intense impetus to the founding of the early church and the style of art produced.

Creating images from small pebbles to ornament the floors of buildings was a technique developed in ancient Greece, which the Romans turned into a technical tour-de-force at Ravenna.

They used glass and other semi-precious and precious materials, including gold glass to create sensational special effects.

The message they gave was that Jesus lived and was subject to our human frailty, which was reflected in his humanity while at the same time embodying his divinity.

The City of Ravenna in Italy, in a number of its most notable buildings, conserves the most intact set of Roman mosaics preserved from the days of the Roman Empire.

They are there because the western Roman Emperor Honorious (385-423) moved there from Milan when he heard the Visigoths were descending on Italy in 402 to conquer all its lands.

It remained there until 476 when the overthrow of the last western Roman emperor.

Ravenna was strategically located, protected by a ring of marshes and strong fortifications and its mosaics were at the beginnings of Christian art.

The scriptures had said of Jesus ‘that in him the fullness of humanity and divinity was pleased to dwell’. His complete obedience to the divine put him on a direct collision course with the authorities of his day and ultimately led to his execution by crucifixion on the hill at Calvary, the cities garbage tip.

On the walls and ceilings of the Catacomb of Priscilla at Rome, where the early followers of the way gathered to retell his stories and talk about the miracles he had performed there are many painted images.

A faded image above an arch of the ‘Adoration of the Magi’, the three ‘wise’ men, who came to witness the birth of the promised ‘Son of God’, is symbolic of how important was this message of love and hope, representing the community of the faithful coming before the throne of God.

The gifts they brought were the key to their identity in the ancient texts….‘The Kings of Tarshish and of the Isles shall bring presents the Kings of Arabia and Saba shall bring gifts’.

When the Roman Emperor Constantine embraced Christianity and located his new capital in the East at Byzantium he determined to make it another Rome, although far more magnificent if possible, than the old one.

Under his direction Constantinople became unquestionably the leading centre of a culture that while it paralleled the Middle Ages in Europe in the East it provided ‘a golden bridge joining East and the West’ and this refers to art, no less than to any other sphere of activity.

Constantine and his successors saw Christianity as vital to the unity of the Empire and their determination to dominate the Church set them eventually on a collision course with the Popes who were now the spiritual leaders of the Church at Rome.

However, we digress, Constantine had works of ancient art transferred to his new city.

He introduced Christian emblems such as crosses and relics and, it was during his reign that the Virgin Mary became official protector of his city, which became an enormous repository for Christian art works.

An image of Gregory the Great (590-604) at his writing desk depicts him as an inspired teacher and guide – the bird whispering in his ear represents the holy spirit while a bevy of scribes copy his words.

During the three centuries between the birth, death and resurrection of Jesus, the Christ and the official recognition of the church by the Roman Emperor Constantine, Christianity acquired the main elements that still characterise it today.

Vines heavy with bunches of grapes were a symbol of the former Greek God of Wine Dionysus and they writhe and intertwine through early Christian imagery in every medium, including mosaics.

Jesus had said of himself, ‘I am the true vine‘. So if he was the vine then the faithful were the branches and the vine becomes an image that represents, or is symbolic of the Church.

The early church was blessed with many brilliant minds with a genius for organization, including St. Paul, who was perhaps the greatest organizer of all.

Men of power and influence’ they could not only inspire and motivate their communities, but also were able to put in place a mechanism of administrative skills that would ensure the traditions they established would continue for two thousand years, an impressive result by anyone’s definition.

They also established an iconography so that Christians were able to express their faith in visual terms, drawing at first for that purpose upon imagery already available to them from the pagan society and culture they had lived most of their lives within.

This was important, because the major proportion of the population was illiterate, which was another barrier to spreading the words stories of Jesus, and the gospels written by his apostles.

A mosaic in the Church of SS Cosmas and Damian at Rome dates from the mid sixth century.

It depicts the Lamb of God raised in the centre on a small mound from, which issue the four rivers of Paradise.

Many were able to ‘read the pictures’ and receive the message because they knew the stories so well because they had been passed on in an established oral tradition.


What does Justinian's Mosaic in San Vitale depict?

Dies mosaic thus establishes the central position of the Emperor between the power of the church and the power of the imperial administration and military. Like the Roman Emperors of the past, Justinian has religious, administrative, and military authority.

Similarly, what is the major theme of the mosaic Emperor Justinian and his attendants? EIN major theme of this mosaic program is the authority of the Kaiser in the Christian plan of history.

Also to know is, who was the empress portrayed in a mosaic at San Vitale?

What is the political significance of the Justinian mosaics of Ravenna?

Explanation: Created in the sanctuary of the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna Italy, this mosaic depicts the Emperor Justinian I as the central authority between the church and the military-bureaucracy of the empire. The halo around the emperor's head reinforces the concept of his divine authority.


Byzantine Hoop-trundling Mosaic - History

The Peoples of Sicily: A Multi­cultural Legacy . Full of Greeks, Arabs, Normans, Germans and Jews, the most signif­icant general history of Sicily ever pub­lished is about much more than an island in the sun. Can the eclectic medieval experience of the world's most conquered island be a lesson for our times? Find out as you meet the peoples! (368 pages on acid-free paper, ebook available) Read more.

Women of Sicily: Saints, Queens & Rebels . Meet a time­less sister­hood of pious Roman maidens, stead­fast Sicilian queens, and a Jewish mother who faced the horrors of the Inquisi­tion. Find an island's feminine soul in the first book about Sicily's historical women written in English by a Sicilian woman in Sicily. (224 pages on acid-free paper, ebook available) Read more.

Some Terms
A.D. - Anno Domini. After the traditional birth of Jesus Christ. Also C.E. for "common" era.
v. Chr. - Before the traditional birth of Jesus Christ. Also B.C.E., before the "common" era.
Barbarians - Roman term for most foreigners.
Byzantine - Pertaining to Byzantium or its culture. Relating to medieval successor of the Eastern Roman Empire until 15th century.
Byzantium - Constantinople (see below).
Christianity - Religion based on the teachings of Jesus Christ (c. 4 BC- c. AD 28) as Son of God (and Messiah), revealed particularly through the Bible, including the New Testament.
Constantinople - Later name for Byzantium, city founded by Greeks on the Bosporus strait.
Dark Ages - "Early Middle Ages" from circa AD 476 until circa 700.
Goths - Germanic tribe of central and eastern Europe, divided into Ostrogoths and Visigoths.
Islam - Religion founded by Muhammad (570-632) in Arabia as Prophet of Allah (God), whose message is revealed in the Koran. Islam is Arabic for "surrender" or "submission."
Jews - People whose religion is rooted in Judaism (see below). Often, those whose ethnic origins are Hebrew and Jewish.
Judaism - Monotheistic religion of the Hebrews, based on the Biblical Old Testament and Talmud. From "Judea," a kingdom and later a Roman province.
Latin - Language of Rome, also Italic culture of Rome, the Western Roman Empire and the Roman Catholic Church.
Longobards - Tribe of Baltic origin that settled in northern Italy (Lombardy).
Middle Ages - Period dated from fall of Rome (AD 476) to Goths until fall of Constantinople to Turks (1453), or from 500 to 1500.
Moors - Also Saracens. Arab peoples, usually Muslim, who conquered medieval Sicily, Spain and northwestern Africa.
Normans - People of Frankish and Nordic (Viking) origin in Normandy who conquered parts of Italy and Britain in 11th century.
Orthodoxy - Relating to the original Christian Church and its traditional teachings, as opposed to the Roman Catholic Church.
Roman Catholic - Church of Rome, particularly following the Schism of 1054.
Romans - Citizens of the extended Roman Empire.
Vandals - Migratory Germanic tribe originally from Scandinavia.


Born of the society of the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire lasted throughout the Middle Ages - its traditions and culture at once Greek and Latin. During Europe's "Dark Ages" (the earliest medieval period from circa AD 476 until around 700), Constantinople (the former Byzantium) shone like a beacon in an era of shadow. The Byzantine Empire preserved older Roman traditions while creating new "Byzantine Greek" ones. It emerged to become the most important and influential Christianized region of the Early Middle Ages. Unlike the Roman Empire, converted to Christianity in its final centuries but founded upon vague pagan philosophies, the medieval Byzantine state was essentially Christian from its very beginning, though religious tolerance (for Jews, pagans and eventually Muslims) usually existed there. It was the Roman Emperor Constantine "the Great," a charismatic leader of eastern origins, who made Christianity acceptable in Roman law early in the fourth century. In most ways, this was a form of worship very similar to what is still preserved in the Orthodox Churches, the Roman Catholic Church having altered much of its theology and liturgy since the eleventh century (more about this later). The defining Byzantine artistic movements were Christian ones.

It has often been said that the Byzantines were Greek, but they were much more. Ethnically, the earliest Byzantines were, in fact, essentially Greek, with Roman, Balkan, Armenian, Slavic and western Asian strains. They called themselves "Romans" and spoke Greek, though Latin was also spoken in some quarters. Linguistically and culturally, their society was not very different from that of the Sicilians in the sixth century. As time went on, Byzantine society encompassed various eastern Mediterranean cultures to a large extent. Throughout most of its history, the Byzantine Empire was a monarchy --though not always a strictly hereditary or absolute one-- having legislative bodies and other democratic institutions considered exceptional in the Early Middle Ages. Over the centuries, Byzantine society and culture greatly influenced eastern Europe, and particularly the Kievan state which became Russia, as well as the cultures of the Caucasus to the east of the Black Sea, facilitating the introduction of Christianity in these regions.

In AD 324, when Constantine I (the Great) became emperor of the Roman Empire, Byzantium was little more than a Greek town (founded before 500 BC) on the Bosporus strait. In 330, he made it the capital of the Empire, which was now essentially Christian. Byzantium was eventually renamed Constantinople and is now Istanbul in Turkey. Constantine sponsored the Council of Nicea (a town in Turkey) in 325. With participation of hundreds of bishops from across the Empire, it codified much of the theological and canonical substance of the early Christian Church still followed by Orthodox and Catholics today.

Straddling Europe and Asia, Byzantium was destined to play a key role in early-medieval history. In 395, when the Empire was divided into east and west, this growing city became capital of the Eastern Roman Empire and resisted the raids of "Barbarians" (Germanic tribes and Huns) which destroyed the Empire in the West (Italy, Switzerland, France, Germany, Britain, Spain, Morocco, etc.), leaving Rome to fall to the Goths in 476.

The Byzantine Empire was geographically its largest under Justinian I (ruled 527-565), who extended it to include Sicily and Peninsular Italy, seizing power from the Ostrogoths. Following a brief period of rule by the Vandals and Ostrogoths, Sicily, which --at least nominally-- was previously part of the Western Empire, was conquered (actually liberated) by the Byzantine general Belisarius in 535 as part of a Gothic-Byzantine war. Carthage, which was controlled by Vandals, had been conquered by the Byzantines a year earlier.

Italian society immediately prior the Byzantine conquest had actually flourished under the Ostrogoth leaders Odoacer and Theodoric, who governed a quasi-Roman state there and in Sicily, but the Byzantines brought these regions under their administration and controlled parts of it well into the twelfth century. In addition to their defense of Christianity, the Byzantines preserved ancient Greek and Roman thought and traditions. Justinian's legal code (sometimes called the "Code of Justinian") is the basis for many legal systems still used today, but in his own time Justinian himself was viewed as an extremist whose defense of Christianity led to intolerance. This policy, though exceptional in the Byzantine Empire in successive years, resulted in the persecution of heretics, pagans and Jews.

Byzantine art was a major influence in Sicily and elsewhere. Often, as in Christian iconography, it was more representational than realistic. Geometric motifs were common, and the use of mosaic was highly developed. Churches and palaces were usually built in the Romanesque style, sometimes with cupolas (domes). The crafts such as jewelry making and silk weaving flourished. Works of literature and history were widely appreciated.

Not all Sicilians were Christians. Sicily had numerous Jewish communities, even in certain small and remote towns. In Sicily, the Jews dominated certain fields, particularly some of the textile trades. Though (largely by choice) they lived in certain districts, the Jews were not very different, socially speaking, from the Orthodox Christians of Sicily. The serious persecution of Sicilian Jews was essentially a late medieval development in Sicily, encouraged from Papal and Spanish circles. As their urbanized population was small and productive, they attracted little negative attention from the Byzantines, Arabs and Normans.

In Sicily, the few centuries of Byzantine rule were peaceful and prosperous, though taxation was high. The Byzantine cultural influence lasted well into the Arab and Norman eras. Under the Byzantines, as under the ancient Greeks and Romans, the Greek language was still widely spoken in Sicily. This was an evolving medieval Greek, not that of the ancients. Vulgar Latin was also spoken, though it was far less prevalent than Greek. Eventually, this Italic language, with Greek, Arabic and Norman French influences, became the medieval Romance language known as Sicilian. Linguistic evolution was a slow process, however, and Greek was still spoken throughout Sicily's Arab and Norman periods into the eleventh century.

By 600, the Lombards (Longobard descendants in Lombardy in northern Italy) were gradually occupying much of the Italian peninsula, though pockets of Byzantine influence remained --at least for a time-- in Venice, Ravenna and Bari, and a growing "Papal State" increased its influence around Rome and beyond, owing much to the efforts of Pope Gregory the Great, who believed in the independence of the Papacy from the collegial traditions espoused by the other patriarchs. Developments in Italy did not immediately affect Sicily, where the Emperor Constans decided to establish his capital in 660. Syracuse, still the island's most important city, became his residence until his untimely assassination in 668. The Emperor's tryannical demeanor and costly maintenance did not endear him to the Sicilians.

Islam was growing, and Muslim Arab armies controlled Egypt, Syria and Palestine by 642. By 652, Muslim-Arab pirates based in Tunisia were undertaking isolated raids on the Sicilian coast. By 750, the Byzantine Empire, though influential, was greatly reduced in size, encompassing Asia Minor (Turkey), Greece, Sicily, and parts of the Balkans and peinsular Italy. Following a revolt against Constans, the capital was restored to Constantinople and Sicily found herself open to attack from abroad.

In Islam's advance westward through Arab efforts, Carthage fell in 689. Muslim conquest often resulted in mass conversion of the conquered. In keeping with Koranic principles, the religious freedom of Jews and Christians was usually respected, but Muslims were accorded greater civil rights. Within two decades, several islands under Sicilian influence (such as Pantelleria) were occupied. Though the Sicilians traded with the Arabs (sometimes called "Saracens" or "Moors"), coastal raids became commonplace. These diminished somewhat after 750 owing to internal struggles among the Muslims.

By 800, there were Arab merchants living in several Sicilian cities. In 805 and again in 813, the governor of Sicily signed trade treaties with the Aghlabids of Tunisia. Matters in Constantinople were not so serene. In 827, the Emperor ordered the arrest of Euphemius, governor of Sicily and a distinguished general. This prompted a revolt in which the general declared himself emperor. Faced with further dissension, Euphemius sought help from the Aghlabid emir, offering him Sicily (a profitable source of tax revenue) in return. The emir accepted, and soon a multi-ethnic force of at least ten thousand Persians, Berbers, Arabs and Spaniards occupied the western city of Mazara.

Bal'harm (Palermo), formerly Panormus, was taken in 831 and soon became capital of one of the island's several emirates. Syracuse fell only in 878, and Taormina, the last Byzantine stronghold, in 902.

Beginning in 867, the Emperor Basil and his descendants promoted a period of prosperity and scholarship in Constantinople. The Empire continued to exist as an important force in the Mediterranean, but only as a shadow of its former self. Some Italian cities remained under Byzantine control, at least nominally, but Sicily was lost. (Constantinople fell to the Turks in 1453, a date considered by many scholars to indicate the end of the Middle Ages.)

Byzantine culture was not simply a question of Byzantine rule. In Sicily and elsewhere, Byzantine society and culture melded with Arabic culture. Indeed, Arabic and Islamic art and society were greatly influenced by Byzantium. Mosques were constructed, often with the help of Byzantine craftsmen, and in Sicily the Church, formally under the Patriarchate of Constantinople from 732, remained solidly Orthodox into the early years of Norman rule, when the beginnings of Latinization took place.

The Schism between the Patriarch of Rome and the patriarchs of the East occurred in 1054, when Sicily was ruled by Muslim emirs. Long before this date zealous Patriarchs of Rome (the Popes) were already encouraging Norman knights in southern Italy to conquer Sicily, thus bringing it into a sphere of influence which was not only Christian but specifically Latin. The reasons for the Schism were political as well as theological. In the wake of this bitter separation, the "Catholic" Church of Rome was to grow further away from the "Orthodox" Church of Constantinople and the entire East. Catholic theology, doctrine and liturgy became increasingly altered. The Normans conquered Messina in 1061 and took Palermo a decade later. In Sicily, the introduction of Latin clergy, and the use of the Latin language in liturgy, were gradually introduced in the years following. By the time Frederick II ascended the throne as a young man early in the thirteenth century, little remained of Orthodoxy in Sicily except a few icons. The new Latinization attenuated the importance of Byzantine culture generally --even linguistically. In Frederick's Palermo, Greek and Arabic were still spoken. This soon changed, however. Generation by generation, the Greek language was cast aside, and Sicilian emerged as a solidly Latin (Romance) tongue, albeit with Arabic and Greek influences. (This Latinization of the Sicilian vernacular was not unlike the Normans' Latinization of English during the same period.)

Yet, in the context of a society made up of several cultures, Byzantine art flourished in Sicily well into the twelfth century. Bearing the marks of Orthodoxy, the Normans' earliest Roman Catholic churches, featuring mosaic icons and other Byzantine elements, look more Eastern than Western. (The Martorana of Palermo, and the cathedrals of Monreale and Cefalù come to mind, but also numerous smaller churches and monasteries, particularly in "Byzantine" northeastern Sicily.)

Byzantine rule did not result in a mass "colonization" of Sicily like those of the ancient Greeks or medieval Arabs, but there was certainly immigration and trade. Constantinople's lasting effects in Sicily far transcended her waning political influence.

About the Authors: Luigi Mendola is the History Editor of Best of Sicily and author of several books. Palermo native Vincenzo Salerno, who contributed to this article, has written biographies of several famous Sicilians, including Frederick II and Giuseppe di Lampedusa.


Israel's motley mosaics

2. Cornucopia and gratitude: The church mosaic uncovered at Kibbutz Beit Kama is one of several all over the Negev, dating back to the time when Christian pilgrims crisscrossed that region. In the northern Negev, near Kibbutz Nirim (off of Road 241 or 242) is another beautiful “stone carpet.” Restored by the Jewish National Fund, this sixth-century mosaic on the ancient site of Maon, like many ancient synagogue and church mosaics, features an inscription mentioning the names of the donors (some things never change) as well as intricate depictions of agricultural motifs such as grape-harvesting and brimming baskets of fruit, animal and birds.

(To visit the first of these ever discovered, the sixth-century Shellal mosaic, will require a little more fuel than a trip to the Negev – after its discovery during World War I it was eventually taken to Canberra, Australia, where it is on display at the war museum there.)

3. The Bird Mosaic of Caesarea and other fauna: Birds are a common motif in mosaic floors, and in fact, have given their name to the Bird Mosaic of Caesarea.
Some of them, like storks and pelicans, still cross Israel’s skies. Others are fanciful or humorous, road-runner style. Around them are wild animals and repeating geometric patterns that would put an Amish quilting bee to shame. The Bird Mosaic is clearly signposted, on the way to the aqueduct in Caesarea. It is special in that it is not from a church or a synagogue, but rather from a room in the villa of a wealthy Byzantine-era Caesarean.

4. A cross on the floor: Most mosaics are famed for the detail of their depictions of animals, plants and human figures. But the beauty of the mosaics at Mamshit National Park, which contains two churches, is in their simplicity. A rare depiction in Byzantine Christian art of a cross on the floor of the eastern churches reveals its antiquity, since after the 427 CE crosses were prohibited as floor decorations.

Bleiben Sie auf dem Laufenden: Melden Sie sich für unseren Newsletter an

Warten Sie mal…

Danke fürs Anmelden.

Wir haben weitere Newsletter, von denen wir glauben, dass Sie sie interessant finden.

Hoppla. Etwas ist schief gelaufen.

Dankeschön,

Die von Ihnen angegebene E-Mail-Adresse ist bereits registriert.

5. Thanks to the antiquities robbers? Other Christian artistic and religious symbols include fish and peacocks. Both can be found on the mosaic floor of the Byzantine church at Horvat Midras, southwest of Jerusalem, not far from Beit Guvrin National Park. Ancient pilgrims apparently marked the tomb of the prophet Zechariah at the site. This magnificent mosaic was discovered in 2011 – “thanks” to an illegal dig by antiquities robbers. The Israel Antiquities Authority subsequently mounted an excavation, unearthing the floor featuring depictions of animals. Complex geometric patterns create beautiful frames on this floor.

6. The curse of the balsam makers: Birds also appear in the mosaic floor of the ancient synagogue at Ein Gedi near the Dead Sea, whose dominant colors seem to mimic the surrounding desert scenery – shades of beige and brown, with green highlights, recalling the oasis home of the community that built it. Like other synagogues the mosaic reveals that the community was wealthy enough to pay the designer, the mosaic master and his extensive team – no small outlay, as you’ll learn at the charming audiovisual presentation at Beit Alfa National Park’s mosaic.

In the case of Ein Gedi, the wealth came from the cultivation of balsam, used in cosmetics and medicines. Because producing these products was so lucrative, it was apparently kept under close wraps. The long inscription in its synagogue mosaic brings down a curse on anyone who reveals the “secret” – presumably the coveted, eyes-only balsam recipe.

7. The sacrifice of Isaac: Some mosaic artisans outdid themselves in human depictions. Not everyone approved of such depictions, because some of them, like the sun god Helios or the signs of the Zodiac, were pagan or had been adapted by Christians. In fact, at one point in the history of the synagogue in Tiberias (Hamat Tverya National Park), the building was renovated, including a wall right across the beautiful floor, obviously to hide what some new building committee considered offensive.

At Beit Alfa National Park, discovered back in the 1920s, you’ll find an entire Bible story depicted in stone– the Binding of Isaac, right down to the altar, Abraham holding the knife, and a hand emerging from a cloud, with the first words of the fateful verse: “Lay not thy hand upon the lad” (Gen. 22:12).

Here and elsewhere people are amazed to find they can recognize some of the ancient Jewish symbols. Flanking the mosaic depiction of the doors of the Holy Ark is the seven-branched candelabrum, one of Judaism’s most enduring symbols, as well as a shofar, lulav and etrog. The only symbol most people can’t quite make out is the incense pan, which, like the candelabrum and the shofar, commemorated worship at the Jerusalem Temple, long destroyed by the time these mosaics were created.

8. Mosaic as story teller: At Tzippori National Park, you’ll find the mosaic-as-story reaching new heights. The Binding of Isaac is there, too, but alongside the sacrificial scene a remnant of the mother of the “offering” – Sarah – appears. The story continues up the mosaic to the Zodiac, where, as in many other synagogue mosaics, the names appear in Hebrew.

The four seasons are also shown, named and bearing their appropriate symbols, such as a bowl of grapes for summer or water for the rainy winter season. These were educational devices, scholars tell us, dating from a time when what some consider “merely” astrology today was a scientific pursuit. In the Tzippori mosaic, the design includes the symbol of the sun, often associated in Psalms with redemption, as well as the Temple symbols. The entire story reminded worshippers that redemption, first promised to Abraham, would shine like the sun, and the Temple would be rebuilt.

9. Jewish symbols at Susya: At Susya, in the southern Hebron Hills (which is over the Green Line, reached from Road 31 in the northern Negev) lies another synagogue floor replete with Jewish symbols. Here, too apparently the synagogue board decided to replace their Zodiac with a more “conservative” geometric pattern. The Bible story here depicts Daniel in the lion’s den.

10. When even King Herod observed the law: Finally, the relatively simple mosaic at the Herodian Mansions in Jerusalem’s Jewish Quarter may be among the most poignant in Israel. It once decorated a Jewish home during the Second Temple period, when even King Herod observed the Jewish law proscribing human or animal images. What this mosaic with its simple geometric pattern lacks in color and designs compared to others, it makes up in the history it brings alive: on it are the charred remains of a wooden beam that fell from the mansion’s ceiling and burned itself to cinder on the floor, together with the rest of the magnificent Jewish homes of Jerusalem’s Upper City one month after the Temple’s destruction in 70 CE.

Phone Numbers (sites not listed are not gated and open 24/7):
National Park sites are open from 8 A.M. to 4 P.M. in winter 8-5 in summer site closes one hour earlier on Friday entry up to one hour before closing time

Mamshit National Park: 08-6556478
Inn of the Good Samaritan: Tel 02-6338230
Susya (Sunday-Thursday 10–5 Friday 10–2): 02-9963424 (Hebrew)
Beit Alfa National Park: 04-6542004
Hamat Tverya National Park: 04-6725287
Herodian Mansions (Sunday–Thursday 9– 5 Friday 9-¬1): 02-6283448

(Information courtesy of Tourism Ministry website.)

Bird at Mamshit. Miriam Feinberg Vamosh


Yale Lectures in Late Antique and Byzantine Art and Architecture

This lecture series is organized by Robert S. Nelson, Robert Lehman Professor in the History of Art, and Vasileios Marinis, Associate Professor of Christian Art and Architecture at the ISM and YDS. Support is provided by the Department of Classics and the Department of the History of Art.

Zoom lectures begin at 12 noon Eastern Time registration is required. You can register at any time to join a lecture. Your registration is valid for the whole series attend as many as you like.

Register for each Zoom webinar by clicking on the lecture title.

September 11
Visual Epitome in Late Antique Art
Jaś Elsner, University of Oxford
Respondent: Maria Doerfler, Yale

12. Februar
From Domestic to Divine: The Mosaics of Late Antique Syria
Sean Leatherbury, University College, Dublin
Respondent: Örgü Dalgıç, Yale

9. April
Auro, argento, aere perennius: Byzantine Art in and through Coins 4 th –15th Centuries
Cécile Morrisson, CNRS and Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres
Respondent: Benjamin Dieter R. Hellings, Yale


Incredible 1,500-year-old Christian mosaic uncovered in Israel

Conor Powell reports on the ancient discovery dating back to the early days of Christianity.

Archaeologists in Israel have uncovered a stunning 1,500-year-old Christian mosaic that was once the floor of a church or monastery.

Experts found the mosaic during an excavation in the ancient Mediterranean coastal city of Ashdod-Yam, now part of the modern city of Ashdod. The discovery, which was made in August, was announced Thursday by the Israel Antiquities Authority.

An inscription in Greek dedicated to the structure’s builders offered archaeologists a vital clue. The inscription mentions a date on the ancient Georgian calendar, enabling experts to date the building.

The mosaic and the inscription. (Photo: Sasha Flit, Tel Aviv University)

"[By the grace of God (or Christ)], this work was done from the foundation under Procopius, our most saintly and most holy bishop, in the month Dios of the 3rd indiction, year 292" it reads. The year 292 corresponds to 539 A.D. “This is the earliest appearance of the use of the Georgian calendar in the Land of Israel, many years before it was used in Georgia itself,” explained Dr. Leah Di Segni of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, who deciphered the inscription, in a statement.

Experts from the Israel Antiquities Authority, Tel Aviv University, and the University of Gottingen and Leipzig University in Germany also participated in the project.

Ashdod-Yam was an important city during the Byzantine period. Long hidden under sand dunes, the city is now revealing its secrets. “As far as we know, Ashdod is now home to the largest community of Jews of Georgian origin in the world,” said Dr. Alexander Fantalkin of Tel Aviv University, Dr. Balbina Bäbler of the University of Göttingen, and Sa’ar Ganor of the Israel Antiquities Authority, in the statement. “Testimony to the presence of the actual Georgians in the Land of Israel as far back as the Byzantine period has been found dozens of kilometers from Ashdod – in Jerusalem and its surroundings. But this is the first time that a Georgian church or monastery has been discovered on the Israeli coast.”

A close-up shot of the mosaic. (Photo: Anat Rasiuk, Israel Antiquities Authority)

The archaeologists note that, according to historical sources, the fifth-century Georgian Prince and Bishop Peter the Iberian lived in Ashdod-Yam.

Archaeologists are now working to raise additional funds to continue their excavation of the site.

The Ashdod-Yam mosaic floor is just the latest fascinating Christian archaeological find in Israel. An ancient Greek inscription, for example, was recently found on a 1,500-year-old mosaic floor near the Damascus Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem. The inscription mentions the Byzantine emperor Justinian, who ruled in the 6th century A.D., and commemorates the building’s founding by a priest called Constantine.

The mosaic and the inscription. (Photo: Sasha Flit, Tel Aviv University0

In 2015 a 1,500-year-old church was discovered at a Byzantine-era rest stop between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. In 2014 the remains of another church from the same period were uncovered in southern Israel.

Experts also believe they have found the lost Roman city of Julias, formerly the village of Bethsaida, which was the home of Jesus' apostles Peter, Andrew and Philip.


Byzantine Hoop-trundling Mosaic - History

In 330 AD, Constantine the Great transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantion on the shores of the Bosporus. During the early Byzantine period (330-700), the Empire included Eastern Europe, the Roman Near East, Egypt and portions of North Africa. The Arab conquests of the seventh century would greatly reduce this area, but the Byzantine world would soon extend into areas of Russia, which were never before Romanized. With the exception of the Latin Conquests, when crusaders captured the imperial capital (1204-61), Constantinople remained as the geographic and symbolic center of this cultural and political sphere until its conquest and collapse (1453).

The Byzantines thought of themselves as the heirs of the Roman Empire, Greek remained the lingua franca of their domain, for example, as it had in this area under Roman rule, and we may approach their architecture from this position. One may interpret the works of civic architecture&mdashthe great walls and gates of the capital city, the Aqueduct of Valens, the Hippodrome, cisterns, fora and royal palaces&mdashin light of Imperial functions, rituals and symbols. The public spaces and structures of Constantinople functioned within a complex ideology finding its expression in ceremonial and architectural monumentality.

But approaching any work of Byzantine architecture outside of its deep connection to religion gives us an incomplete picture of this tradition. While the Byzantines were the heirs of the Roman Empire, they turned away from the gods of antiquity to embrace Christianity.

Although the Empire was religiously diverse, by the late fourth century Christianity became the official religion of the Empire, and faith would help maintain the authority and prominence of Constantinople through its decline from political significance. Much of Byzantine architecture was created to express religious experience and mediate between the believer and God. Taken in its architectural context, the iconographic program of the mosaics and frescoes of the Kariye Camii envelopes the believer within scenes of the Old Testament and the lives of Christ and Mary Mother of God. Visual expressions of faith within the context of the Eucharist and other religious ceremonies then provide layers of meaning, even the primary context, to the architectural heritage of the Byzantine world.

Building: Hosios Lukas (Church of St. Luke)
Date: 10th–early 11th century



Bemerkungen:

  1. Germian

    Etwas bei mir, es gibt keine persönlichen Nachrichten, Fehler ....

  2. Nigal

    es war interessant zu lesen.



Eine Nachricht schreiben